Effect of Source of Energy and Rate of Growth on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Ruminal Fermentation, and Serum Glucose and Insulin of Early-Weaned steers1

– Can you see the two concerns, please? because I explained one just and I want you to explain the second one please.

 

2-My writing tutor told me title? What is the info you want to tell/ feel us?

children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source”(59). The study showed the kind of nutrients and level energy that Americans get from the Far From Home or FAFH foods. According to this annotation there are two concerns mentioned in this study which are the “FAHF foods produces unhealthy nutrients from the meals served because it uses more saturated fats, salts, as well as sugar. They said, “Preparing foods of choice at home”(59). Bee,G.,S. Gebert, and R. Messikommer said, “Effect of Dietary Energy Supply and Fat Source on the Fatty Acid Pattern of Adipose and Lean Tissues and Lipogenesis in the Pig.”(77). I could

Smith, Glen. Children’s Food: Marketing and Innovation. London: Blackie Academic & Professional, 1997. Print.

 

3- Can you see the information inside the Quotations Mark, please? Because  the Quotations Mark are some no complete sentences.

 

4- I want you to work section 4 please and I put the information in the file. (This part is very important and I hope you will care about it)

 

 

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My topic is Energy Source

Introduction:

Fats are an energy source that are needed both by animals as well as humans. They sustain the metabolism in the body and provide energy for the muscles to move. This energy source can be derived from animals and from vegetables too. Fat has the highest amount of energy measured in mass. There are two kinds of fats, the good fats and the bad fats. Vegetable oil belongs to the good fat which is favorable to the body. This is also used as energy source by some industries which are beneficial to the environment. Choosing the correct oil for human diet and transportation is important. Furthermore, this will help in the better understanding what good foods such as vegetable oil can do to improve the wellness of every individual and oil’s advantages when used by industry.

 With the various health concerns that are popping up like mushrooms due to wrong eating lifestyle and improper use of energy sources, it is important that everyone must know the significance of vegetable oil to the people and to its ecosystem. Moreover, it is essential to know the quality of food that is included in everyday maybe and the quality of the energy source used in operating machineries.  The result is based on the thorough and meticulously gathered data that will prove the claims of this study. It intends to show how vegetable oil can help in maintaining the body hale and hearty and how it is advantageous to the environment.

Drewnowski, Adam, and Colin D. Rehm used research of, “Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source”(59). The study showed the kind of nutrients and level energy that Americans get from the Far From Home or FAFH foods. According to this annotation there are two concerns mentioned in this study which are the “FAHF foods produces unhealthy nutrients from the meals served because it uses more saturated fats, salts, as well as sugar. They said, “Preparing foods of choice at home”(59). Bee,G.,S. Gebert, and R. Messikommer said, “Effect of Dietary Energy Supply and Fat Source on the Fatty Acid Pattern of Adipose and Lean Tissues and Lipogenesis in the Pig.”(77). I could not eat pig because my religion said there are some good and some bad inside the pig. There are two kinds of energy diets which is the low and the high energy diets that can be derived from the pig. But according to Bee, et. Al, these fatty acids can also be obtained from tallow as well as soy. This study aims to provide information regarding fats as good energy source. Facts have been researched and gathered to prove the following claims on this research which are:

Selected Vegetable oil is healthy.

Including vegetable oil for balanced diet is important.

Vegetable oil has beneficial effects on the environment.

WIC Program supports the advantages of vegetable oil as energy source.

Vegetables oils:

Vegetable oils are extracted from vegetables seeds such as soy beans, sunflower, safflower, oil, and many more. This came into existence during the 1900’s. Extraction processes are done through chemical processes that undergo deodorizing and separating the oil naturally from the seed. Vegetable oil is used in processed foods such as salad dressings and mayonnaise. It is said to be healthy because it has mono-saturated fats and fair amount of beneficial fatty acids known as Omega 3.

The human needs unsaturated fats hence there are reactions when unsaturated fats are assimilated in the body. This is because the unsaturated fats are healthier and much safer than saturated fats. Daquan said, “Vegetable oil is very common, affordable and used by majority of people across the globe especially in the tropics” (253). In order to protect their consumers from any complications arising from the use of the fats, they ought to use the best resources available. In addition, there are reasons why vegetables oils are healthy and natural thus being toxic. In a real sense, vegetable oil is natural in a bigger percentage than it is natural. Vegetable oil contains Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids which are toxic when assimilated into the human body. From a research carried out it was found out that between 1909 and 1999, soybean vegetable oil consumption contributed to 7% of calories in the U.S population. Cheap commercial oil involves a process using a procedure people are not aware of. It actually consists of heating industrial chemicals and solvents which are highly harmful to the human body. Cheap vegetable Oils destroy the fatty acids found in the cells of the body. These fatty acids are very important because the human body cannot produce them.

Olive oil is another type of vegetable oil that is known to be healthy to the heart. This is constantly included in the meals prepared by the Mediterranean people. It helps in improving the good cholesterol or the HDL and lowering the amount of bad cholesterol that is circulating in the blood. Again the type of oil that you have to use is the “Extra Virgin Olive Oil”. The palm oil is an added vegetable oil that is derived from the fruit of the palm that is rich in Vitamin E and in Coenzyme Q10. The avocado is another source of safe vegetable oil that has the same composition and beneficial effect like in olive oil. This beneficial effect has been supported in the study made conducted by Dauqan, Egbal, et al. (2011) where it mentioned that the “Studies have demonstrated that RPO supplementation has beneficial or neutral effects on plasma total cholesterol [1]. This is because RPO is rich in antioxidant particularly β-carotene and vitamin E.”
Balanced diet

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Adam Drewnowski and Colin D. Rehm wrote in “Energy Intakes of US Children and Adults by Food Purchase Location and by Specific Food Source,” that “Some food has more energy and some has less energy.” Energy sources are poor and people cannot afford the expensive fuels. Financial restrictions by families experiencing low income has led to them not to be in the capability of accessing diet which are balanced because they are expensive. When a family is experiencing financial problems, they take little consideration of the health risks posed by certain type of food as long as they can afford it. Also majority low-income families lack education on the risk posed in consuming certain food materials. A balanced diet has many benefits; one being fighting and preventing of certain diseases. Every types of food has different nutrients; thus eating and balancing a wide range of food leads to the body accessing different type of nutrients. For instance, foods rich in protein prevent against diseases such as diabetes, cancer, obesity, heart disorders and kidney failure. Glen Smith said,”This aspect portrays that the energy supply has to match metabolic demand quite close as possible” (7). A balanced diet provides energy in human bodies so that one doesn’t feel sluggishness and is active in his/her daily activities. It also speeds up the rate at which an injury recovers.

WIC Program

Jennifer Claire Olmsted said that the mission of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is to safeguard the health of low-income women, infants, and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk. These initials stands for women, infants and children. This program involves special supply of nutrition for women, infants and children, referrals for health care, and education on nutrition especially low-income pregnant, breastfeeding, and non-breastfeeding women, and children who are less than 5 years and are prone to nutritional risk.

WIC program assists families through the provision of checks for purchasing foods which are healthy from WIC-authorized vendors. It also educates women on the proper breastfeeding techniques to ensure the infant access to the required nutrition for its body. The qualified participants enjoy other benefits from this program; e.g. For example, access to good healthcare and social services such as prenatal programs, immunizations and child clinics, and drug and alcohol treatment programs. WIC participants benefit from free health and nutrition education which assist them in comprehending their certain nutrition needs and requirements and learning about health prevention and improvement techniques. However, in order for WIC program to be successful, the participant must acquire certain responsibilities. These include not being late for the appointments, giving correct and accurate personal information to the WIC official so as to determine WIC program eligibility of the individual, using WIC checks only on WIC authorized vendors and stores and to use these check to purchase only the amount and type of foods described in these checks.
The WIC check should also be used in the correct dates prescribed in the checks. The participant should also inform the WIC offices in her change in income levels or change of residence. All these requirements of the WIC program ensure the health needs of the participants are met to the maximum. Authors L.A. Hamm, and E.W. Holden. carried out a study and concluded that, “Outreach services are fundamental to effectively serving homeless families through the WIC program.”

Schoonmaker said,”Manufacturers of infant formulas add blends of vegetable oils, which are high in linoleic acid, to improve essential fatty acid content. Food sources of lipids in the older infant’s diet, other than breast milk and infant formula, include meats, cheese and other dairy products, egg yolks, and any fats or oils added to home-prepared foods” (57).

ENVIROMENT

Vegetable oil is also used as energy source in industries such as Billy’s Chowder House located in Wells, ME. The wasted oil is poured into a device named Vegawatt, burning the oil and sending back the heat to the restaurant to produce hot water used for washing dishes and in other facilities in the kitchen. This process enables the owner to save energy, power costs and most of all helps the environment because it is bio fuel. It is not carbon-based and does not contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer that causes global warming.

The use of vegetable oil and its effect in the environment as mentioned above backs the findings on the research made by Manoranjan,  Mohanty, which reveals “that increasing emphases have been given recently to “new” renewable and green energy sources in the Pacific Island countries as mitigation and adaptation strategies to fuel crisis and climate change. PICs have taken a wide range of green energy initiatives including ‘biomass’, solar, wind and other non‐traditional renewable energy sources and bio‐fuels development. Prospects for coconut, copra and palm‐oil based bio‐fuels do exist in many PICs. Opportunities for ethanol bio‐fuels also exist especially in Fiji.”

OgwUmike and Uche said, “Most Nigerian households use inferior /environmentally harmful. Sources of energy for cooking and lighting” (157).The earth’s environment has gradually been degrading since the beginning of the industrialization the period. These changes have adversely affected the agriculture and food supply sectors in the world. This includes the fisheries sector. The presence of increase in natural calamities such as floods and droughts has decreased the agricultural activities in various countries and thus low food production rate. This in turn leads to increase in people who cannot access enough healthy food e.g. drought in Somalia and floods in Budalangi, Kenya). Warm water temperatures lead to fish shifting their habitat due to disruption of the water ecosystems. This causes low supply of fish and thus inadequate food supply for human beings. The growth of crops is faster in warmer temperatures. However, other crops e.g. grains, the fast growth decreases the amount of time the seeds will take to mature and grow. This in turn reduces the crop yields. Also weeds and pests thrive well in higher temperatures and increase in higher carbon dioxide levels. This leads to people being in a risk of not accessing the proper amount of healthy foods. The ideas that are emerging around ‘‘earthsystems governance’’ (Biermann) pose a number of challenges for 21st century food systems. Adverse change in the world environment has also affected livestock both directly and indirectly. Presence of heat waves reduces the livestock population. They also make the livestock vulnerable to diseases, reduce the livestock fertility and reduce their milk production rate. Drought threatens pasture and feed supplies for the livestock leading to their decrease. Changes in climate increase the survival chances of parasites and disease causing pathogens which affect livestock. These changes lead to decrease in livestock numbers and thus reduction in adequate food supply for human beings.

Proposal

After defining these claims, various claims and a conclusions can be determined. In the vegetable oil claim the government should try and strictly monitor the production of the cooking oil in the country. They should ensure that all the ingredients that are risky to human bodies are eliminated during the production of these vegetable oils. The healthier cooking oil such as the olive oil and coconut oil should be less taxed so as to be afforded by the low-income families. People also should be educated on the dangers of consuming vegetable oils and the other substitute they can use instead. On balanced diet the mass should be educated on the importance of having one. Various food materials should also be made cheap so as for low-income population can access diverse food materials so as to cater for their rage nutrients needs. Also the WIC programs should be made available to everyone irrespective of their age, race, color, nation of origin and disability. There have been cases of WIC fraud, and the government should ensure these cases are minimal or completely prosecuted so as to ensure their services are 100% for worthy participants. The degradation of the environment has always been a concern to the human race since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Various laws have been passed to control this degradation but it keeps on increasing. I think not much effort has been put yet e.g. closing down of industries which emit toxic wastes to the environment. If we use our oils appropriately we can improve our health and the health of the entire planet.

Works cited

Anderson, G. Harvey , et al. “Protein Source, Quantity, and Time of Consumption Determine the Effect of Proteins on Short-Term Food Intake in Young Men1,2.” The Journal of nutrition 134.11 (2004): 3011-5. ProQuest. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

Biermann, F. “Earth system governance’ as a crosscutting theme of global change research.” Global Environmental Change 17, (2007): 326–337. ProQuest .Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

Dauqan, Eqbal, et al. “Effect of Different Vegetable Oils (Red Palm Olein, Palm Olein, Corn Oil and Coconut Oil) on Lipid Profile in Rat.” Food and Nutrition Sciences 2.4 (2011): 253-8. ProQuest. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.

Lancha, Andoni, Gema Frühbeck, and Javier Gómez-Ambrosi. “Peripheral Signalling Involved in Energy Homeostasis Control.” Nutrition Research Reviews 25.2 (2012): 223-48. ProQuest. Web. 6 Oct. 2014.

Milne, Anne C., Alison Avenell, and Jan Potter. “Meta-Analysis: Protein and Energy Supplementation in Older People.” Annals of Internal Medicine 144.1 (2006): 37-48. ProQuest. Web. 1 Oct. 2014.

Mohanty, Manoranjan. “New Renewable Energy Sources, Green Energy Development and Climate Change.” Management of Environmental Quality 23.3 (2012): 264-74. ProQuest. Web. 29 Sep. 2014.

Ogwumike, Fidelis O., and Uche M. Ozughalu. “INTERACTIONS AMONG POVERTY, ACCESS TO MODERN ENERGY SOURCES, AND GENDER IN NIGERIA.” The Journal of Developing Areas 48.4 (2014): 123-78. ProQuest. Web. 23 Sep. 2014.

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Drewnowski, Adam, and Colin D. Rehm. “Energy Intakes of US Children and Adults by Food Purchase Location and by Specific Food Source.” Nutrition Journal 12 (2013): 59. ProQuest. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

Schoonmaker, J. P., et al. “Effect of Source of Energy and Rate of Growth on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Ruminal Fermentation, and Serum Glucose and Insulin of Early-Weaned steers1.” Journal of animal science 81.4 (2003): 843-55. ProQuest. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

Gebert, G., S. , and R. Messikommer. “Effect of Dietary Energy Supply and Fat Source on the Fatty Acid Pattern of Adipose and Lean Tissues and Lipogenesis in the Pig.” Journal of animal science 80.6 (2002): 1564-74. ProQuest. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

Hamm, L. A. and Holden, E. W. “Providing WIC services to homeless families.” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. (1999): 224-229. ProQuest. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

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Olmsted Jennifer Claire . “The Wic Program: Background, Trends, and Issues.” Ideas. (2002).ProQuest. Web. . 29 Oct. 2014.

Answer

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