Analyze how, Emerging health care reform and Organizational downsizing has changed healthcare delivery on both the macro and micro levels.

Choose two elements from the following list and analyze how each has changed healthcare delivery on both the macro and micro levels. Provide specific examples of how both macro and micro impacts/changes:

Emerging health care reform
Managed care
Total quality improvement
Integrated health care delivery systems e.g. alliances, networks, mergers
Organizational downsizing

Define the term field of epidemiology.

Before you begin this assignment, read through the Home page and the required readings.  Specifically, view the E-learning course – Introduction to epidemiology video. 
As a health officer, you have been asked to discuss the subject of epidemiology to high school students getting ready to enroll in Winterton College.

Your task is as follows:

Define to them the field of epidemiology.
Briefly list a historical evolution of epidemiology.
Explain the terms outbreak and epidemic.
The Introduction to epidemiology video discussed the Legionnaire’s disease outbreak in 1976.  Briefly describe the case in terms of time, place, and person; and, what should have been the first step the Pennsylvania Department of Health should have followed?

Length: 2–3 pages, excluding title page and references.

Review the types of bias ; Non-differential recall bias, Differential recall bias, Publication bias, Loss to follow-up, Refusal to participate, Interviewer bias, Confounding.

This week you will review different types of bias, present an example of a study, and discuss whether bias was a factor in the study outcome. You will also discuss how the study design could have been altered to minimize or eliminate the risk of invalidating the results.
To prepare for this Discussion:

Review the types of bias listed below.

Non-differential recall bias
Differential recall bias
Publication bias
Loss to follow-up
Refusal to participate
Interviewer bias

Select one type of bias from the list above, and consider the ways that bias could impact a study.
To complete this Discussion, post a real or hypothetical example of one study. You can use one of the studies you designed during Weeks 3 or 4 or search for a different study.

How could bias be introduced in the study?
Would the bias be considered a selection bias or an information bias? Why?
Name two or three variables that might be possible confounders in your study.
Describe at least one method of controlling those confounding variables.

Epidemiology for Public Health Practice
Chapter 2, “Practical Applications of Epidemiology” (Causality in Epidemiological Research, pp. 84–97)Concepts about causality and risk in epidemiological research are covered in this section of the chapter.
Chapter 9, “Measures of Effect” (pp. 420–430)The authors explore statistical measures in determining absolute and relative effects in epidemiologic investigations and evaluating epidemiologic associations.
Chapter 10, “Data Interpretation Issues”Interpreting the findings of an epidemiological study can sometimes be challenging. There are, however, a few guidelines that can point you in the right direction. This chapter covers those guidelines.
Hills Criteria of Causation

This article explores the Hills Criteria of Causation, which outlines the minimal conditions needed to establish a causal relationship between two items. It is a method of determining a causal link between a specific factor(s) (e.g., cigarette smoking) and a disease (such as emphysema or lung cancer). 

Identify the differences between Presidential and Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction.

 250 words
Identify the differences between Presidential and Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction. Outline the progression of conflict between Congress and President Johnson. Why was impeachment of President Johnson sought and what was the outcome? 

How do sanctions work? Why are they so effective in maintaining social order?

How do sanctions work? Why are they so effective in maintaining social order?
To address these questions, you will violate a social folkway. Select one of the options below.
You may not choose something that is not on this list.

1. Violate someone’s personal space. Sit or stand too close to someone you don’t know.
2. Commit a random act of kindness. For example – Buy a stranger a cup of coffee. Offer to help someone carry
    their groceries to the car. Trade places in line.
3. Stand backward in an elevator or in a line.
4. Give a compliment to everyone you encounter.

Choose ONE of the options. It helps if you have a partner to observe you, but you don’t have to. Be aware of your own reactions.

Compose an essay with your responses to the following items:
— Are you nervous before and/or after committing the violation? Why?
— How did your “target” react? What kind of sanctions did your receive (positive or negative)?
— Overall, discuss why sanctions are so powerful in maintaining social order.
Your essay should be 2-3 paragraphs and contain properly cited references.

Explain how a company can fix a problem by applying logistics principles to strengthen the organizations competitive advantage in the global marketplace.

Prior to beginning work on this interactive assignment, read the assigned chapters in your textbook and all assigned articles for this week.
Research shows that in the year 2015 alone, 40% of supply chain managers have experienced some sort of supply chain disruption due to operational, industrial, technological, and inventory management issues. Using your own experience in the workplace and/or information presented in the assigned readings, select a company that experienced a supply chain disruption that negatively affected the company’s operations in recent years.
In your post, identify the company you chose, explain what they do, and describe the disruption they experienced in their supply chain and the negative effects it had on the company’s overall business performance. Your post must be a minimum of 250 words.
Now imagine you are a logistics manager at your selected company and you have just received an email from the CEO asking you to come to his office first thing in the morning and give a one-minute pitch on what went wrong and how you would solve the problem(s). Your one-minute pitch to the CEO must include the following:

State the problem/disruption that occurred.
Explain how the problem/disruption affected the company’s operations.
Describe the cause(s) of the problem.
Explain how the company can fix the problem by applying logistics principles to strengthen the organization’s competitive advantage in the global marketplace.
Describe how the problem/disruption can be prevented from reoccurring in the future.

Write a script of your pitch, and practice delivering it to ensure it is no longer than one-minute in duration. Once you think you have it right, use your smart phone, any free online recording service, or app, and make a recording of yourself delivering your pitch to the CEO so you can hear how it sounds. When you are satisfied with your recorded pitch, upload the saved audio file to the discussion forum.
Additional Guidance
This is a unique assignment because it gives us the opportunity to hear you present your solution. 
It is a best practice to record your presentation more than once, so you take advantage of the learning curve associated with a process you may not normally complete.  Post the best recording you make so the CEO has the best you have to offer. 
Be cognizant of the way you present your pitch as well as the content of your solution.
Note that this question has two parts: your solution (audio presentation) and your written response to the student (on behalf of the CEO).  Rather than ask you questions about your initial presentation, I will focus on your response to your peer (on behalf of the CEO). 
As always, respond to my questions to increase your grade.  To earn a distinguished participation rating, you do not need to present multiple responses (on behalf of the CEO), but you can provide additional support for the student response to the problem (audio), or the student response on behalf of the CEO.
If you have questions, be sure to contact me via private message (conversation) for assistan

What are the characteristics of employees and work circumstances that can most significantly reduce stress and burnout related to the change? Why?


MD 6 DQ 2: Change is a constant factor in the contemporary workplace, often resulting in stress for the employees. You are the HR director for an organization that is about to begin a major organizational change. What are the characteristics of employees and work circumstances that can most significantly reduce stress and burnout related to the change? Why? How can identifying these employees and circumstances help reduce the possibility of workplace violence during the change? 

200 words and three APA references

Examine various theories of human development.

For this assignment address the following:

Examine various theories of human development, describing relevant terminology, and addressing how the theory assists in the understanding of issues involved in the selected topic.
Identify and describe at least two domains of human development (physical, biological emotional, cognitive, and/or social) and how they are impacted by the chosen topic.
Identify and describe the stages of development that are affected by the chosen topic.
Describe the cultural and historical perspectives of the chosen topic, demonstrating an understanding of how the topic has been perceived over time and by other cultures. Provide relevant examples.

The Assignment:

Must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages), and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a title page with the following:

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted

Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.

Begin with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define all concepts that will be discussed in the paper.
For example, if you select “How do memory and intelligence change as we age?” as your topic, you will need to define the terms memory, intelligence and aging.

Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.

Conclude with an answer to the selected question. Did the evidence you surveyed answer the question satisfactorily? Include your analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the available evidence.
If possible, suggest the course that future research should take if answers to the selected question are less than conclusive.

Must use at least two scholarly sources, all of which must come from the Ashford University Library or Google Scholar.

It is important that you ask yourself if the articles specifically address the selected topic. It is not always easy to find the right articles. Thus, give yourself some time to search before you finalize your selection.  
You may reference your textbook and other required materials from the course; however, these will not fulfill the resource requirements.

Must include an annotated bibliography which briefly summarizes each article including the purpose of the investigation, its methodology, and results.

If possible, select peer-reviewed articles that summarize the evidence available in a given field of study (e.g., meta-analysis combines the findings of different studies to uncover trends, commonalities and differences).
Order the articles in the way you think you will discuss them in your paper. Then develop a summary of the scientific evidence that answers the question you selected.

Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

The reference section will be the final page of the paper.

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