Do endosymbotic relationships still exist today?

Answer original forum 300 words minimum 

Respond to both class mates 100 words minimum 

Follow directions or I will dispute 

original forum – page 1 with references 
student response – page 2 with references 
student response – page 3 with references 

Original Forum

There are fundamental differences between the two types of cells but also similarities. An interesting concept in science is that prokaryotic cells are what gave rise to eukaryotic cells via an endosymbiotic relationship. The two primary examples of this are the mitochondria in animal cells and chloroplasts in plant cells that are very similar to bacteria.

Review the information available at Endosymbiosis and The Origin of Eukaryotes

Once you have reviewed this information, choose ONE of the topics below
Topic 1: Animal cell mitochondria 
OR
Topic 2: Plant cell chloroplasts
Research and Support your post to address the following questions in your initial post in an expository manner;

If you chose animal cells, how are mitochondria replicated within eukaryotic cells?
If you chose plant cells, how are chloroplasts replicated within plant cells?
How are these processes similar to microbes?
Do endosymbotic relationships still exist today?
What are the advantages and disadvantages of such relationships?

Student response

Eric

Good evening class,
From the information that we have been reading about this week, there is a lot to take in and especially trying to understand the prokaryotes and eukaryote relationships. According to the endosymbiotic theory proposed by Lynn Margulis more than 50 years after it was proposed, it was found that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated from prokaryotic organelles due to their “symbiotic relationship within a eukaryotic host” (Parker, 2016). After the theory was widely accepted, she wrote a book and in it explained how endosymbiosis is a huge part of evolution. Prokaryotes arose from eukaryotes with this relationship from the mitochondria. From what I gathered, it sounds like the mitochondria of the prokaryotes find duplicate in the cells of the eukaryotes as its host.
The similarities between this and microbes can be seen through its replication. Throughout its discovery, scientists learned that mitochondria has its own genome and ribosomes. This means that it is capable of its own cellular respiration. These bacterium were taken over by phagocytosis into a host cell where it remained (Parker, 2016). In terms of similarities, microbes have the same behavior when they attach themselves to a host. They remain to have a symbiotic relationship in which the host benefits from its presence, is harmed, or neither of the two.
Endosymbiotic relationships still do exist today as they are part of evolution. As we know, this kind of relationship involves one cell not being able to live without another. We can see this kind of behavior with bacteria. It has been around for millions of years and has learned to adapt itself in order for it to reproduce. Through the use of transformation, they are able to pick up DNA from the surrounding area and transform it to its own (APUS Lessons, 2018). These kinds of relationships are advantageous because cells are able to produce with the help of another cell. However, it is also its downfall. If those cells are not available, an endosymbiotic relationship will not be possible. Without having something to depend on for survival, the evolution of the cell may never be accomplished and thus cease to eventually exist.
-Eric
References
APUS Lessons. (2018). Lesson 2. Retrieved October 9, 2018
Parker, N. (2016). Microbiology. OpenStax. Retrieved 2018

Cristina

Mitochondria and chloroplasts do not divide my mitosis like other cells in the body, but by fission.  Mitochondria come from other, established mitochondria; they have their own unique circular shaped DNA, attaching to the inner membrane similar to the DNA of prokaryotes.  The processes are similar to microbes in their resemblance of ribosomes and appearance.  Organelles have the same sized mitochondria, but different shapes, appearing it to be more rectangular.  The cellular shaped DNA loops around super coiled and doubly covalently linked, similar to DNA bacteria, however mitochondria that is ciliated appears more linear.  Endosymbotic theory still exist and has been built upon to include the suggestion that eukaryotic flagellum arose from an ectosymbiotic spirochete bacterium and prokaryotes living today are not known to have another prokaryote living inside (Origin of Eukaryotes, n.d.) 
            I believe endosymbiosis is an explanation of not only what happened between microbes in the past but also what happened today with different types of organisms, termites are just one example of how prokaryotes live within them in order to help digest wood.  Studies arguing how “unique microbial consortium living in the guts of lower termites is essential for wood-feeding, host and symbiont cellulolytic enzymes synergize each other in the termite gut to increase digestive efficiency” (Peterson & Scharf, 2016).  Bacterial groups in a termite’s lower gut have diverse metabolic methods including acetogenesis, nitrogen fixation, and degradation of lignin phenolics.  Though termites are able to digest nitrogen poor wood and digest it, this microbe rich environment makes them vulnerable to pathogenic infections. 
References:
Origin of Eukaryotes (n.d.). GW. Retrieved from https://www2.gwu.edu/~darwin/BiSc151/Eukaryotes/Eukaryotes.html
Peterson, B. F., & Scharf, M. E. (2016). Lower termite associations with microbes: Synergy, protection, and interplay. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 422. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00422

Describe the various historical-cultural influences that have affected human sexuality.

Assignment Instructions
Assignment 1: Human Sexuality Throughout History Time-line
Our readings describe the various historical-cultural influences that have affected human sexuality. These historical-cultural influences include such events as the sexual revolution, the control of conception, the emergence of contraception, as well as the redefining of gender roles throughout history. Many of these events changed the way sexuality is viewed today. Using Prezi (http://prezi.com/), PowerPoint, or Word create a time-line and identify at least 7 important historical events that you believe influence sexuality today. Evaluate each of these events according to its significance in history and culture. Place the date, a brief description, or even a video clip of the historical-cultural influence. Please read the grading rubric below for additional guidance with this assignment.

Describe how the pathology of mellitus diabetes causes a homeostatic imbalance in the system.

 Explain whether mellitus diabetes has a direct or indirect effect on the system you chose, explaining why this system was impacted more than the other systems studied during this week.

Describe how the pathology of the health condition causes a homeostatic imbalance in the system.
Analyze the body’s reactions to the health condition as it attempts to re-establish homeostasis.

Discuss asexual and sexual reproduction in terms of genetic diversity. How is meiosis related to genetic diversity?

Create at least a 350-word blog post in Microsoft® Word in response to the following question:

Female copperhead snakes have the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. In your opinion, which method is best for the species in general and why? 

Develop your opinion and include the following in your post:

Discuss asexual and sexual reproduction in terms of genetic diversity. How is meiosis related to genetic diversity? 
Use one of Gregor Mendel’s ideas to support your opinion.

Please provide 1-2 reliable sources

What is infant directed speech?

  
HD101
Ch. 7 Language Development
Study Questions: Write responses to each of the following questions. Write the responses in your own words, do not copy and paste from your textbook, or another source. Cite a reference for the information provided for each question. Include a reference list.
Rubric
· Responses to questions are accurate. – 5 points
· Each question has a reference citation in APA format; reference list is included/accurate. – 2 points.
· Responses are written in student’s voice. – 3 points.

­­­­­­­­1. Define and give a specific example of:
Language
Definition:
Morphemes 
Definition:
Phonology
Definition:
Semantics
Definition:
Prelinguistic language/communication
Definition:
2. What is infant directed speech?  How can parents and others who work with infants use infant directed speech to encourage language development in very young children?
3. Parents are often concerned about whether their child’s language development is on schedule.  What are 2 indicators, according to Anne Dunlea, that an infant is probably developing normally?
Indicator 1:
Indicator 2:
4. Define and give a specific example of:
Holophrases
Definition:
Telegraphic Speech
Definition:
Underextension
Definition:
Overextension
Definition:
Fast mapping
Definition:
Private speech
Definition:
Social speech
Definition:
5.   Describe the 3 views of language acquisition.
1)
2)
3)
6.  What role does poverty play in the development of language?
7. Describe the two approaches to bilingual education.  What are 2 advantages of bilingualism for children?
Approach 1:
Approach 2:
Advantage 1:
Advantage 2:
8. Define:
Syntax
Definition:
Fast mapping
Definition:
Referential Style
Definition:
Rehearsal
Definition:
Metalinguistic skills
Definition:
Metacognition
Definition:
Pragmatics
Definition:

What physical properties of water make it such a unique solvent ?

Question #1,part a, why are you taking this course?
                        Part b, what do you hope to get out of it?

Question #2.part a .what is natural selection ?(Hint: Contrast it with artificial selection)
                         Part b. Describe the Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution, in detail.including the concept of natural selection

Question #3. Part a. why is water fundamental to all living organisms?
                          Part b. what physical properties of water make it such a unique solvent ?

Question #4 Part a.Describe the structure and function of each of the four major types of organic molecules
                         Part b . information is contained in the DNA,Specifically,what is made using that information?

Bonus Question. what does “survival of the fittest” mean? what does not mean?

Answer each question as completely as possible and submit this assignment to turnitin.co
If you cant find the verification email, check your spam/junk folder

Is the high resting heart rate, intermittent arrhythmia and high blood pressure associated with the increased catecholamine production of the adrenal medulla?

 
Unit 7 Discussion Question 
Unidentified Condition: Adrenalin, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, Hypertensive Retinopathy 

Estimated time to complete: 1 hour
Throughout the discussions in this course we will be focusing on one single condition; gradually unfolding week by week how this condition can grossly affect the entire human body and its systems.
The goal of the course discussions is primarily, to build upon the skill of differential diagnosis and secondary, to give a clear view as to how a single pathological process can possess the ability to affect an entire human organism.
Each week you will be presented with varying components of a new system being adversely affected by the unidentified condition. Your task as a healthcare professional in training, is to thoroughly research and envelop yourself within the process of differential diagnosis to arrive at a definitive diagnosis at the end of the course in week 8.
In phase one of the discussion, you will be tasked with presenting your researched information into a video or written presentation answering the questions below, while also considering your response and symptom presentation from weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
Video presentations should be a minimum of three minutes in length and should not exceed four minutes.  Written presentations should be a minimum of 2-3 paragraphs per each diagnosed condition (3 conditions minimum).
Symptom Presentation:

Adrenalin: Increased epinephrine (catecholamine production) from the adrenal medulla
Heart Rate: Increased resting heart rate with intermittent bursts of arrhythmia
Blood Pressure: Systemic hypertension reported over the past 8 months
Hypertensive Retinopathy: arteriolar constriction, vascular wall changes, cotton-wool spots, yellow hard exudates, and optic disk edema

Previously, you researched and considered three conditions through the process of differential diagnosis that would present with varying abnormalities in homeostasis, metabolism, triglycerides and DNA in week 1. Abnormalities in oxidation, plasma and tissue enzyme activity, inflammation and alopecia respectively in week 2. Increased cortisol and demonstrated bone loss in week 3. Fibromyalgia and muscle atrophy in week 4. Increased glutamate and memory loss in week 5 and neurogenic inflammation in week 6. Given the new symptom presentation above, consider and answer the following questions within a video or written presentation:
  If choosing a written presentation, create a 2-3 paragraphs per each of the questions listed below.

1)Is the high resting heart rate, intermittent arrhythmia and high blood pressure associated with the increased catecholamine production of the adrenal medulla? Rationalize and explain your answer.
2)Would hypertensive retinopathy be associated with an acute or chronic disease state? Explain your answer.
3)What is your final diagnosis? Has your diagnosis changed from previous weeks? Rationalize and explain how and why you have arrived at your final diagnosis?
written presentation, please be certain to validate your opinions and ideas while disclosing the sources utilized within your written presentation (APA format).

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