What is the relationship between hormones and aggression?

Chose ONE of the following to respond to. Be sure to check the rubric and cite from the readings.

Option A: What is the relationship between hormones and aggression? Which hormones play a role in human aggression? How might anabolic steroids enter this relationship? How about hormone-based contraception?

Option B: How does emotion play a role in pain? For example, why does it hurt worse when someone intentionally hurts you versus accidentally hurts you?

How is mitochondrial DNA transmitted to children?

Primary Post 300 word min and Peer Response 150 word minimum. Only use links provided.

Prompt: In this week’s discussion explore the implication of X-chromosome inactivation (Links to an external site.) on genetic diseases in women. X-chromosome occurs during embryo development and makes sure that each cell in a woman has only one active X-chromosome, like each cell in a man has only on X-chromosome. Pick a genetic X-linked disease (Links to an external site.) and contemplate the consequence of X-chromosome inactivation leads to mozaicism in heterozygous women. The main concept to explore is the following: if the X-chromosome with the healthy allele is inactivated, a heterozygous women would be affected by the disease allele. 

Bio Questions 1-6

1. Describe both the primary gene or protein defect and the resulting phenotype for the following diseases
     a: Cystic fibrosis, b. Marfan syndrome
2. The father of 12 children begins to show symptoms of Huntington disease. What is the probability that Sam  the man’s second oldest son (II-2), will suffer from the disease if he lives a normal life span? (Sam’s mother and her ancestors do not have the disease.)
3. Define penetrance and expressivity.
4. In the following pedigree, assume that the father of the proband is homozygous for a rare trait. What pattern of inheritance is consistent with this pedigree? In particular, explain the phenotype of the proband. (Consider a rare trait here to be less than 1 in 30,000.)

5. A young boy is color blind. His one brother and five sisters are not. The boy has three maternal uncles and four maternal aunts. None of his uncles’ children or grandchildren is colorblind. One of the maternal aunts married a colorblind man, and half of her children, both male and female, are colorblind. The other aunts married man who have normal color vision. All their daughters have normal vision, but half of their sons are color blind.
a) which of the boy’s four grandparents transmitted the gene for colorblindness?
b) are any of the boy’s aunts or uncles color blind?
c) is either of the boy’s parents colorblind?
6. How is mitochondrial DNA transmitted to children?

What field has developed since Darwin and reshaped our understanding of evolution?

Chapter One
1. On page 9 of the textbook there is a sampling of what physical anthropologists do. 
What are some of these anthropological pursuits? 
2. What is a hominin? 
3. When did our earliest human ancestors live? 
4. Every person is a product of evolutionary history, of all the biological changes that have brought humanity to its present form. Our physical appearance, our intelligence and everything else that makes us a distinct biological species evolved in our predecessors, whose genes led to the species we are today. 
Look at Figure 1.3. What are the 6 big events of human evolution? Or, put another way, what are 6 unique physical and behavioral characteristics that set humans apart from other animals? List these and describe each one. 
5. Physical anthropology takes a biocultural approach. What is meant by this? Looking at Figure 1.3 which two of these events were caused mainly by biological changes and which four by changes in both human biology and human culture? 
6. Your biological makeup is also strongly influenced by your environment. What things does environment refer to here? 
Chapter Two
1. How did Darwin’s observation of the Galapagos finches lead him to his basic theory of evolution? What characteristics of the birds did he observe? What questions did they lead him to ask? 
2. What are adaptations? 
3. What did Darwin mean by 
natural selection?  
adaptive radiation?  
descent with modification?
4. What five disciplines did Darwin draw on as he developed his theory of evolution? What had scientists in each of these disciplines already shown? 
5. What 5 concepts did Darwin borrow from Thomas Malthus? 
6. What did Darwin add to the theory of evolution? 
7. What field has developed since Darwin and reshaped our understanding of evolution? 
8. What basic principles of inheritance did Gregor Mendel discover?
9. How do these principles contribute to our understanding of cells, chromosomes and genetics?
10. We now know that evolution is caused by one or a combination of what 4 forces of evolution? 

The take on the necessity of human/animal research?

Research involving living nonhuman animals has attracted the attention of two quite different segments of the nonscientific public: animal welfare and animal rights or animal liberation groups. Animal welfare groups are concerned not only about laboratory research involving living animals, but also about other aspects of animals’ involvement in human society. In contrast to animal welfare groups, animal rights groups argue that no laboratory research should involve living animals, regardless of the benefits that would result from animal research.

Scientific research with animals has taught us most of what we know about the functions of the body, including that of the nervous system. This knowledge has been essential in developing ways to prevent and treat neurological and mental disorders.

What is your take on the necessity of human/animal research? What are the guidelines that should be followed? When is it acceptable and not acceptable to do this type of research? Use opinion along with information from the readings.
Please be sure check out the grading rubric and post your own response and reply to one other student post by the due date to receive full credit. You do not have to stick to the specific questions that I have asked if you have another direction you would like to explore. Please feel free to go in any direction you would like. This is your opportunity to share with the class.

Why is alcohol considered the most influential drug on society?

The drugs described in this chapter have different effects in the CNS. Which one seems to be the most addictive, and why? Additionally, why is alcohol considered the most influential drug on society? What is your feeling on the topics surrounding drugs and society? Please use information from the readings to support some of your response.

please see attachment

Importance of joining professional organizations as a student and/or a future public health practitioner.

For your first article assignment you will need to read the two articles below and write a short discussion paper on professional organizations and membership. In the top right hand corner of your paper include your name, course number and date (single spaced). A title page and/or reference page isn’t required. However, within the body of your paper you must appropriately cite your work.
The content of your summary must be at least 2 typed pages (doubled space, Time New Roman 12 font, using APA writing style). As part of your conclusion state your opinion related to the importance of joining professional organizations as a student and/or a future public health practitioner.

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