What forms of technology can be used to reduce hunger and improve food security?

The members of the United Nations appreciated the content you provided on population growth. Now they are asking you to expand the whitepaper to include global food security as it relates to population growth and poverty. Read the Case Study and provide an assessment based on the questions below.
(For a brief list of resources for this assignment, please see the end of the course guide.)
We can view global food security as the effort to build food systems that can feed everyone, everywhere, and every day by improving food quality and promoting nutritional agriculture.[1] That said, there are certain practices that can advance this project:

Identifying the underlying causes of hunger and malnutrition
Investing in country-specific recovery plans
Strengthening strategic coordination with institutions like the UN and the World Bank
Developed countries making sustained financial commitments to the success of the project

We must bear in mind that more than three billion people, nearly one-half of the global population, subsist on as little as $2.50 a day and that nearly 1.5 billion are living in extreme poverty on less than $1.25 a day. According to the World Health Organization, the United Nations, and other relief agencies, about 20,000 people (mostly children) starve to death in the world every day, for a total of about seven million people a year.
In addition, about 750 million (twice the population of the United States) do not have access to clean drinking water, meaning that some one million people die every year from diarrhea caused by water-borne diseases.
The population of Earth is expected to grow from 7 billion in 2010 to 8 billion in 2025, 9 billion in 2040, and 11 billion by the end of the 21st century.[2] If the demand for food is predicted to grow by 50% by 2030 and 70% by 2050, the real problem is not necessarily growing that much food. Rather, it is making that amount available to people.
Moreover, foodborne illnesses are prevalent, with nearly 600 million reported cases of foodborne diseases each year. These affect mainly children, but also negatively impact the livelihood of farmers, vendors, trade associations and, ultimately, the Gross Domestic Product (national income) of a country. These issues can impose tremendous human, economic, social, and fiscal costs on countries Addressing them allows governments to devote more resources to making desperately needed improvements in infrastructure that raise the quality of life for everyone.
It is not enough to have adequate supplies of food available. Policies that focus exclusively on food production can exacerbate the problem, particularly if, to satisfy the need for quantity, the quality of the food is left wanting.
Reasons for Food Insecurity
Certainly, poverty and the systemic internal conditions creating it inside a country are the unmistakable driving factors behind keeping adequate food resources from reaching people. It is only one factor of several, however. Others include the following:
Inadequate Food Distribution: The reality is that there is more than enough food in the world to feed its people. The primary cause of famines is not poor weather conditions as much as it is getting the needed amount of food to the people who need it most. Quite often causes result from political instability and poor infrastructure, often involving a country’s port facilities, transportation availability and quality of road networks. Paradoxically, although the population is going to increase in the coming decades, the amount of food potentially available will increase along with it. This is due mostly to advances in bio agricultural engineering and increased seed immunity to molds.
Writing in the late 18th century, Thomas Malthus warned that global population would exceed the capacity of Earth to grow food, in that while population would grow exponentially, food production would grow only arithmetically. Although this theory has been proven invalid, the unfortunate result of its propagation has been for some governments to rationalize political choices that avoid helping the poverty-ridden and starving.
Political-Agricultural Practices: The widespread use of microbiological, chemical, and other forms of pesticides in food continues to be a serious issue throughout the global food chain. Widespread use of fertilizers also causes illness in millions of people every year, not only from the food itself, but from run-off into streams and rivers, contaminating entire water supplies. The human, social, and economic costs of such practices impede improvements being made not only in the raising of crops, but in their distribution. Added to this, the rising demand in developed countries for biofuels, currently refined mostly from corn and soy beans, reduces the amount of arable land devoted to producing food.
The failure of many farmers in the developing world to rotate their crops harms the replenishing of nutrients necessary to continue growing crops. In addition, the repeated use of agricultural land without allowing it to lie fallow in order to replenish needed soil nutrients thereby increasing fertility and maximizing crop yield results in reduced agricultural output and insufficient crop yields.
Economic Issues: The fact is, government policies that focus on growing cash crops, for example, are designed solely to export them to earn foreign exchange. This may be fine for the government in its efforts to earn money, but the result is that farmers end up growing for foreign markets and not domestic ones. This leads to shortages of necessary staples. Consequently, the poorest of the population are frozen out of the local markets because they cannot afford the food that remains to be sold.[3]
Civil Strife: Civil war can interrupt the flow of food from gathering depots, such as ports, to distribution centers where it can be handed out to people. During the 1990s, Somalia was particularly hard hit by their civil war, as clans fought for control of the main port at Mogadishu. This affected the flow of food to the rest of the population. In this case, as with many civil wars, whoever controls the supply of food controls the country. In failed and failing states like Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, South Sudan, Yemen, and Libya, food very often is another weapon used by one segment of the population against another.
II. Case Assessment
The issue is not the lack of food in the world, but the access to food. Simply put, food is not getting to where it needs to be in time. In developing countries, the food shortage is due to governmental control over food. These governments maintain their control and preference for certain groups by limiting access of nutritious food to certain other groups. The result is the weaponizing of food.
In this second part of your whitepaper, research the impact of poverty on global food security and the technology available potentially to remedy this situation. Write a minimum of four pages assessing the impact, citing at least five credible sources in your research. Refer specifically to the role these issues have had in the developing country of your choice. In this assessment, please include:

A cover page with your name, title of the course, date, and the name of your instructor
A one-half page introduction
A middle section that is numbered and divided into three one-page sections. Each of these sections should answer one of the following questions:

What is food insecurity and what role does population growth play in it?
What factors specifically interrupt the flow of food from the source to the people in the developing country you selected?
What forms of technology can be used to reduce hunger and improve food security? Explain how these technical solutions can do that.

A one-half page conclusion
Cite at least five credible sources excluding Wikipedia, dictionaries, and encyclopedias for your assessment.
For a brief list of resources for this assignment, please see the end of the course guide.

What are “soul building evils” according to Sober?

What are “soul building evils” according to Sober?  How are they supposed to solve the problem of evil?  Do you think such a solution is persuasive?  Why or why not? 

NOTE: NOT more than 150 words, almost two small paragraphs. 
I attached a photo of the book of Elliott Sober.

How to resolve any conflicts within a team?

You have recently been hired to lead a team comprised of relatively long term, experienced employees. Their performance has been generally satisfactory, however changes are coming and it will be your job to affect this change. As the “new sheriff” in town, what sources of power and influence are available to you? Which do you feel would be most successful and why? What are the potential consequences of your using the types of power and influence you identified? How do you think you would best be able to resolve any conflicts within the team?

How does communication change based on where and to whom you are speaking?

Discussion: Would You Act Like That in Front of Your Grandmother?: Context and Intercultural Communication
Context guides communication. Informal language intended for a comedy club audience often does not transfer well to a formal speaking situation such as a corporate board meeting. Nonverbal behavior present in a conversation among friends becomes inappropriate around a dinner table with extended family. Communication styles among co-workers could create problems when used to speak to a police officer. Accepted communication behaviors for one culture may be offensive or even illegal in another culture. Informal gatherings as part of a larger, more formal diplomatic meeting (as shown in the image) require a very sophisticated level of contextual communication expertise that takes years to develop. In short, understanding the context of a communication scenario plays a very large role in successful interaction.
In this week’s Discussion, you consider how communication behaviors change based on the context in which they take place. You explore the influence of context on communication style and the impact of context on intercultural communication.

To prepare for your Discussion:

Review cultural contexts in Chapter 11 of the course text.
Consider the relationship between context and communication. How does your communication change based on where and to whom you are speaking? Why do you alter the way you communicate to fit the context in which you are speaking?
Select two of the three following contexts to focus on for this Discussion: educational, personal, and professional.
For each of the two contexts you selected above, ask yourself the following questions:

What language do you use?
How formal or informal is it?
Do you speak loudly or more softly?
Do you speak faster or more slowly?
What kinds of nonverbal communication behaviors do you use? Do you look someone in the eye? Use hand gestures? Change your facial expressions?

Reflect on how understanding context can help you overcome intercultural communication challenges. How can you apply this knowledge to future intercultural interactions that you may face?
Select two different communication contexts. Consider the communication style choices individuals would have in these two contexts:

Would they use a formal or informal style or register?
What nonverbal behaviors would be effective?
How would the communication be paced?

Note: One of the goals of this course is to promote a wide variety of views. You are encouraged to present your honest personal viewpoint while at all times reflecting a respectful tone for the views of others.

Post a 2- paragraph comparison of the communication styles in your selected contexts. Explain how context has an impact on style choices such as the use of formal or informal language, pacing, volume, and nonverbal behaviors.
Be sure to support you ideas by connecting them to at least one of this week’s Learning Resources. Additionally, you may opt to include an outside academic resource that you have identified.

What is shamanism? What types of shamans exist in society?

This week we are ask to write two different post, both has to have a word count of 200 words each.

1. What is shamanism? What types of shamans exist in society? How are shamans different/similar from/to other religious specialists?

2. What role do priests play in society? Have you observed priests? What did you note in terms of their personalities, roles, etc?

Articulate the value of play and discuss the perceived benefits of play to those who remain skeptical.

Prepare for this discussion by reading Chapters 2 and 3 in the required text. Next, review the article on The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and the National Association for the Education of Young Childcare’s References to Play in NAEYC Position Statementsto further prepare to advocate for and discuss the benefits of play experiences. Also, review Stuart Brown’s research presented in thePlay is More Than Just Fun (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. video and note how, according to Dr. Brown, “humor, games, roughhousing, flirtation, and fantasy are more than just fun” (TED, 2008).

As an educator, a common topic you will face is defending the importance of play in the curriculum. Parents are often unaware of the benefits of play and would rather have their child be engaged in academic work. In this discussion, you will advocate for the importance of play. You will develop convincing arguments to be presented to a skeptical parent about why play is important for children. Additionally, participation in this discussion prepares you for the Week Five Final Paper through which you will develop your personal framework of play to use when advocating for play.

Initial Post: As an advocate for play, you will likely be required to articulate the value of play and discuss the perceived benefits of play to those who remain skeptical. Your goal is to convince a parent about the importance of play on a child’s cognitive development.
In your post:

Discuss how a child’s cognitive development is influenced by play.
Include at least two examples of neuroscientific research from the course text. Cite your examples within the body of your post and provide a complete reference in APA format as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. at the end of your post.
Describe how you will facilitate cognitive development when working with children.
Explain how you will communicate your perspective to the parent.

Guided Response: Respond to at least two peers’ by examining the information presented in their discussion posts. Challenge them by asking a question that you would address when attempting to persuade a parent with an alternate view and provide recommendations to extend their discussions.  As with most discussions in this course, though two replies is the basic expectation, for deeper engagement and learning, you are encouraged to provide responses to any comments or questions others have given to you. This will further the conversation and provide you with opportunities to demonstrate your content expertise, critical thinking, and real-world experiences with this topic.

How would you describe a learning environment that fosters engagement and motivates students?

A crucial element of classroom management is to develop strategies to engage students, promote individual and group motivation, and encourage positive behaviors among students. As a future teacher going into the classroom, it is important to develop a toolkit of effective engagement and classroom management strategies for use in any classroom.
Part 1: Effective Engagement Strategies Toolkit
Research three videos that successfully demonstrate engagement, motivation, and classroom management strategies that would be useful for the grade level you want to teach. With this information, complete the “Effective Engagement Strategies Toolkit” template.
The template will cover the following:

Name and location of video
Description of engagement strategy and how each strategy demonstrates respect and responsiveness for cultural and diverse needs of students
Procedures and expectations of the strategy
How each strategy is described, implemented, and/or evaluated in the classroom

Part 2: Effective Engagement Reflection
In 250-500 words, summarize and reflect on the following:

What signs would you look for, as a teacher, to show that your students are engaged in instruction?
After explaining the role of each student at the beginning of a lesson for a group activity, how can you ensure all members of the group know each team member’s expectations?
How would you monitor individual student understanding in a small group setting?
How would you describe a learning environment that fosters engagement and motivates students?

Submit the “Effective Engagement Strategies Toolkit” template and reflection as one deliverable.

Discuss strategies to provide support for academically, behaviorally, and socially diverse students.

1. Using extrinsic rewards in the classroom is often controversial. Where do you stand in terms of providing students with rewards for reaching behavioral or academic goals? After reviewing the readings and any additional sources, do you plan to use extrinsic motivators in your future classroom? If so, how?

2. In order to encourage and promote student motivation and engagement, instructors must provide support while academically challenging students. Discuss strategies to provide support for academically, behaviorally, and socially diverse students. Be specific in naming strategies.

Answer in 200 words.

If you designed your own early childhood education facility, what features would you be sure to include? Why?

Search the Internet for photographs or videos of 19th-century early childhood classrooms, kindergartens, or schoolhouses. 
Consider the differences between 19th-century facilities and current facilities. 
Write a 350-word reflection comparing and contrasting early facilities with current facilities. Answer the following questions in your reflection: 

If you designed your own early childhood education facility, what features would you be sure to include? Why? 

Refer to Ch. 3 of Fundamentals of Early Childhood Education and the University Library to choose six early childhood theorists.

Research the Internet for the definition of a matrix.  
Create a matrix of six theorists that briefly describes the following for each theorist: His or her major contributions to the field
The theory for which he or she is known
How his or her work has influenced early childhood today.
Refer to this week’s readings and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Standard 1: Promoting Child Development and Learning. 
Write a 350-word reflection of the following: 
The stages of prenatal development
The effect of genetic disorders and environmental influences on prenatal development 
Include a reference page if needed. 
Format your reflection according to APA guidelines.