Identify your specialty area of professional practice.

Identify your specialty area of professional practice. Select a nursing theory from the list of specialty track specific theories provided in the lesson plan or one of your own findings. Address the following: (1) briefly identify concepts of the nursing metaparadigm (remember the selected theory may not include all four concepts); (2) provide an example how the theory could be used to improve or evaluate the quality of practice in your specific setting.specilaty track must be FNP

Week 2: Refinement of a Nursing Concern

Week 2: Refinement of a Nursing Concern into an
Evidence-based Practice Proposal Using the Research Process
Purpose
This assignment
provides the opportunity for the student to continue work on a previously
identified area or phenomenon of interest related to their MSN specialty track.
Week Twos assignment builds upon the identified area of interest by developing
an overview of the evidence-based practice (EBP) project and the PCIOT/PICo
question. This assignment initiates the
evidence-based practice proposal that is continued throughout the entire course
with each assignment adding components of the research process.
Course Outcomes
This assignment
enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
CO#1 Integrate evidence-based practice and research to
support advancement of holistic nursing care in diverse healthcare settings. PO 1
CO#2 Integrate knowledge related to evidence-based practice
and person-centered care to improve healthcare outcomes. PO 2, 5
CO#4 Develop knowledge related to research and
evidence-based practice as a basis for designing and critiquing research
studies. PO 1, 2, 3, 5
Due Date: Sunday 11:59 PM MT at the end of Week Two
Total Points Possible:150 points
Requirements
Description of the Assignment
This assignment builds on the identification of a
nursing concern from NR 500 and the application of a nursing theory to the
selected concern from NR 501. For this
course, the selected concern and nursing theory then serve as a foundation to
the identification of PICOT/PICo. Identification
of the literature search strategy is also required.
Criteria for Content
1. Overview of Selected Evidenced-based Practice Project: This section provides a foundation to the MSN
EBP scholarly project. It should contain
the following elements:

Explain the relationship between research and
evidenced-based practice (EBP)

Distinguish how EBP is different from research

Explain the contribution of EBP to professional
nursing

Identify your MSN Program Specialty Track and
practice focus

Explain how EBP promotes change within your
future practice setting

2. Identification of the Nursing Concern to be Improved: This
section provides a comprehensive discussion of the selected nursing
concern. It should contain the following
elements:

Explain the selected nursing concern in
detail

Identify how frequently the selected
concern occurs within your specialty track setting

Identify the stakeholders impacted by
the concern

Identify the consequences of the
selected concern

Identify your proposed solution to the
selected concern

Identify a purpose statement for this
EBP proposal

3. PICOT/PICo question and Literature Search Process: This section identifies the PICOT/PICo
question that will used for this EBP proposal.
The literature search parameters will also be identified. It should contain the following elements:

Identify the question in correct format with all
required elements
o
PICOT for quantitative research approach
o
PICo for qualitative research approach

Identify how the expected outcome will be useful
to your future practice setting

Discuss the purpose of conducting a literature review
and the contribution it will provide to this EBP proposal

Identify the steps used to conduct a literature review
for this EBP proposal by including:
o
The specific library databases used
o
The key search terms and phrases used
o
The minor (additional) search terms and phrases
used
o
Identify any specialty organization that is
relevant to this EBP proposal

4. Theoretical
Framework: This section presents the
theoretical framework that will used in this EBP project. It should contain the following section:

Explain the theoretical framework to be used in
this EBP proposal

Describe how the identified theoretical
framework is applied to this EBP proposal

Preparing the Assignment
Criteria for Format and Special Instructions
1. The paper (excluding the title page and reference page) should be at
least 5, but no more than 8 pages. Points will be lost for not meeting these
length requirements.
2. Title page, running head, body of paper, and reference page must follow
APA guidelines as found in the 6th edition of the manual. This
includes the use of headings for each section of the paper except for the
introduction where no heading is used.
3. A minimum of 6 (six) appropriate
research-based scholarly references must be used. Required textbook for this course, dictionary
and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment. For additional assistance regarding scholarly
nursing references, please see What is a scholarly source located in the
Course Resources tab. Be aware that
information from .com websites may be incorrect and should be avoided. References are current – within a 5-year time
frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them
prior to submission of the assignment.
4. Ideas and information from scholarly, peer reviewed, nursing sources
must be cited and referenced correctly.
5. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and
consistent with formal, scientific writing.
Directions and Assignment Criteria

Assignment Criteria

Points

%

Description

Overview of Selected Evidenced-based Practice
Project

25

17

Required content for this
section includes:

Explain the relationship between research and
evidenced-based practice (EBP)

Distinguish how EBP is different from research

Explain the contribution of EBP to professional
nursing

Identify your MSN Program Specialty Track and
practice focus

Explain how EBP promotes change within your
future practice setting

Identification of the Nursing Concern to be
Improved

25

17

Required
content for this section includes:

Explain the selected nursing concern
in detail

Identify how frequently the selected
concern occurs within your specialty track

Identify the stakeholders impacted by
the concern

Identify the consequences of the
selected concern

Identify your proposed solution to
the selected concern

Identify a purpose statement for this
EBP proposal

PICOT/PICo question and Literature Search Process

20

13

The required content for this section includes:
Identify
the question in correct format with all required elements:

PICOT for quantitative research approach

PICo for qualitative research approach

Identify how the expected outcome will be
useful to your future practice setting

Discuss the purpose of conducting a literature
review and the contribution it will provide to this EBP proposal
o
Identify the steps used to conduct a literature
review for this EBP proposal by including:
o
The specific library databases used
o
The key search terms and phrases used
o
The minor (additional) search terms and
phrases used
o
Identify any specialty organization that is relevant
to this EBP proposal

Theoretical
Framework

20

16

The
required content for this section includes:

Explain the theoretical framework to be used
in this EBP proposal

Describe how the identified theoretical
framework is applied to this EBP proposal

Paper Specifications

10

8

Paper meets length requirements of 5 to 8 pages.
Minimum of 6
(six)appropriate research scholarly
nursing references
A dictionary, required textbook for this course
and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, may NOT be used as scholarly references
for this assignment.
References are
current – within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and
the instructor has approved them prior to assignment submission.

APA Format (6th edition)

25

17

Title page,
running head, body of paper, and reference page must follow APA guidelines as
found in the 6th edition of the manual. This includes the use of
headings for each section of the paper except for the introduction where no
heading is used.
One deduction for
each type of APA style error

Citations in Text

10

7

Ideas and
information that come from readings must be cited and referenced correctly.

Writing Mechanics

15

10

Rules of
grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and consistent
with formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA
manual.

Total

150

100 %

Week 2: Refinement of a Nursing Concern into an
Evidence-based Practice Proposal Using the Research ProcessThis assignment
provides the opportunity for the student to continue work on a previously
identified area or phenomenon of interest related to their MSN specialty track.
Week Twos assignment builds upon the identified area of interest by developing
an overview of the evidence-based practice (EBP) project and the PCIOT/PICo
question. This assignment initiates the
evidence-based practice proposal that is continued throughout the entire course
with each assignment adding components of the research process. This assignment
enables the student to meet the following course outcomes: CO#1 Integrate evidence-based practice and research to
support advancement of holistic nursing care in diverse healthcare settings. PO 1CO#2 Integrate knowledge related to evidence-based practice
and person-centered care to improve healthcare outcomes. PO 2, 5CO#4 Develop knowledge related to research and
evidence-based practice as a basis for designing and critiquing research
studies. PO 1, 2, 3, 5Due Date: Sunday 11:59 PM MT at the end of Week TwoTotal Points Possible:150 points Description of the AssignmentThis assignment builds on the identification of a
nursing concern from NR 500 and the application of a nursing theory to the
selected concern from NR 501. For this
course, the selected concern and nursing theory then serve as a foundation to
the identification of PICOT/PICo. Identification
of the literature search strategy is also required. Criteria for Content1. Overview of Selected Evidenced-based Practice Project: This section provides a foundation to the MSN
EBP scholarly project. It should contain
the following elements:
Explain the relationship between research and
evidenced-based practice (EBP)
Distinguish how EBP is different from research
Explain the contribution of EBP to professional
nursing
Identify your MSN Program Specialty Track and
practice focus
Explain how EBP promotes change within your
future practice setting2. Identification of the Nursing Concern to be Improved: This
section provides a comprehensive discussion of the selected nursing
concern. It should contain the following
elements:
Explain the selected nursing concern in
detail
Identify how frequently the selected
concern occurs within your specialty track setting
Identify the stakeholders impacted by
the concern
Identify the consequences of the
selected concern
Identify your proposed solution to the
selected concern
Identify a purpose statement for this
EBP proposal3. PICOT/PICo question and Literature Search Process: This section identifies the PICOT/PICo
question that will used for this EBP proposal.
The literature search parameters will also be identified. It should contain the following elements:
Identify the question in correct format with all
required elementso
PICOT for quantitative research approacho
PICo for qualitative research approach
Identify how the expected outcome will be useful
to your future practice setting
Discuss the purpose of conducting a literature review
and the contribution it will provide to this EBP proposal
Identify the steps used to conduct a literature review
for this EBP proposal by including:o
The specific library databases usedo
The key search terms and phrases usedo
The minor (additional) search terms and phrases
usedo
Identify any specialty organization that is
relevant to this EBP proposal4. Theoretical
Framework: This section presents the
theoretical framework that will used in this EBP project. It should contain the following section:
Explain the theoretical framework to be used in
this EBP proposal
Describe how the identified theoretical
framework is applied to this EBP proposalCriteria for Format and Special Instructions1. The paper (excluding the title page and reference page) should be at
least 5, but no more than 8 pages. Points will be lost for not meeting these
length requirements.2. Title page, running head, body of paper, and reference page must follow
APA guidelines as found in the 6th edition of the manual. This
includes the use of headings for each section of the paper except for the
introduction where no heading is used.3. A minimum of 6 (six) appropriate
research-based scholarly references must be used. Required textbook for this course, dictionary
and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information may NOT be used as scholarly references for this assignment. For additional assistance regarding scholarly
nursing references, please see What is a scholarly source located in the
Course Resources tab. Be aware that
information from .com websites may be incorrect and should be avoided. References are current – within a 5-year time
frame unless a valid rationale is provided and the instructor has approved them
prior to submission of the assignment.4. Ideas and information from scholarly, peer reviewed, nursing sources
must be cited and referenced correctly.5. Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and
consistent with formal, scientific writing.Assignment CriteriaPoints%DescriptionOverview of Selected Evidenced-based Practice
Project2517 Required content for this
section includes:
Explain the relationship between research and
evidenced-based practice (EBP)
Distinguish how EBP is different from research
Explain the contribution of EBP to professional
nursing
Identify your MSN Program Specialty Track and
practice focus
Explain how EBP promotes change within your
future practice settingIdentification of the Nursing Concern to be
Improved2517Required
content for this section includes:
Explain the selected nursing concern
in detail
Identify how frequently the selected
concern occurs within your specialty track
Identify the stakeholders impacted by
the concern
Identify the consequences of the
selected concern
Identify your proposed solution to
the selected concern
Identify a purpose statement for this
EBP proposalPICOT/PICo question and Literature Search Process
2013The required content for this section includes: Identify
the question in correct format with all required elements:
PICOT for quantitative research approach
PICo for qualitative research approach
Identify how the expected outcome will be
useful to your future practice setting
Discuss the purpose of conducting a literature
review and the contribution it will provide to this EBP proposalo
Identify the steps used to conduct a literature
review for this EBP proposal by including:o
The specific library databases usedo
The key search terms and phrases usedo
The minor (additional) search terms and
phrases usedo
Identify any specialty organization that is relevant
to this EBP proposalTheoretical
Framework 2016The
required content for this section includes:
Explain the theoretical framework to be used
in this EBP proposal
Describe how the identified theoretical
framework is applied to this EBP proposalPaper Specifications108Paper meets length requirements of 5 to 8 pages.Minimum of 6
(six)appropriate research scholarly
nursing referencesA dictionary, required textbook for this course
and Chamberlain College of Nursing lesson information, may NOT be used as scholarly references
for this assignment.References are
current – within a 5-year time frame unless a valid rationale is provided and
the instructor has approved them prior to assignment submission.APA Format (6th edition)2517Title page,
running head, body of paper, and reference page must follow APA guidelines as
found in the 6th edition of the manual. This includes the use of
headings for each section of the paper except for the introduction where no
heading is used.One deduction for
each type of APA style errorCitations in Text107Ideas and
information that come from readings must be cited and referenced correctly.Writing Mechanics1510Rules of
grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and consistent
with formal written work as found in the 6th edition of the APA
manual.Total 150 100 %

Guide to NR511 Case Studies Part 1 In Part 1, you are given a patient scenario.

Guide to NR511 Case Studies

Part
1
In
Part 1, you are given a patient scenario.
Using the information given, answer the following questions:

1.
Briefly
and concisely summarize the H&P findings as if you were presenting it to your preceptor using the pertinent
facts from the case. Use shorthand where
possible and approved medical abbreviations.
Avoid redundancy and irrelevant information.

Example:

J.S.
is a 34yo male with a CC of acute onset ST x 3 days [provide additional
information from the history that is relevant].

Physical
exam is significant for [provide relevant physical exam findings].

*Do
not simply rewrite the information as it is presented in the case report. This
should mimic how you would present this patient to your preceptor.

2.
Provide
a differential diagnosis (plural) which might explain the patients chief
complaintalong
with a brief statement of pathophysiology for each.

Example:

Diagnosis
#1
-Pathophysiology
statement

Diagnosis
#2
-Pathophysiology
statement

Diagnosis
#3
-Pathophysiology
statement

3.
Analyze
the differential by
using the pertinent findings from the history and physical to argue for or
against a diagnosis. Rank the
differential in order of most likely to least likely.(This
is where you present your argument for EACH DIAGNOSIS in your differential
using the patients subjective and objective information that was given).

Example:

Diagnosis
# 1, 2, & 3 (provide an analysis for each of the diagnoses listed above)
A
brief argumentas to why this condition should be considered plus:
-Pertinent
positive symptoms which support the diagnosis
-Pertinent
negative symptoms which support the diagnosis

4.
Identify any additional tests and/or
procedures that you feel is necessary or needed to
help you narrow your differential. All
testing decisions must be supported with an EBM argument as to why it is
necessary or pertinent in this case. If
no testing is indicated or needed, you must also support this decision with EBM
evidence.(This
is where you identify, based on what you know thus far, test or test(s) that
you would perform TODAY which would help you narrow your differential diagnosis).

*Do not list all of the
possible tests that can be done. You are being evaluated on your diagnostic
reasoning skills as well your ability to make decisions that are in-line with
current practice recommendations. Just because a test is available does not
mean it needs to be done.

Example:

Lets
say my differential included bronchitis and pneumonia. In this case, a CXR might be useful in
differentiating the 2 conditions.
However, remember that you have to have an EBM argument for this
decision. So make sure you are
telling the reader why this is the best choice based on the literature (i.e.,
it is not enough to say the test and cite the author & date). In this instance, my argument might look like
this: According to the Infectious
Disease Society of America (2012) a CXR is considered the gold standard for
diagnosing pneumonia. Keep in mind that
you also need an EBM argument if you decide NOT to test too.

Part
2
In
Part 2 you might be given some additional history, exam or test findings. Using this information and the
information in Part 1, answer the following questions:

1.
What
is your primary diagnosis for this patient? Tell the reader how you came to this
conclusion using the information that you were given (i.e., CXR result, lab
result). Interpret the results into your
diagnosis decision (i.e., tell how this information helped you to narrow your
differential to the one diagnosis that you chose).

Example:

Diagnosis:
Pharyngitis, streptococcal

Rationale:
The CBC results are
normal which rules out infection and anemia. The RSA test was + which tells me
that she has a very strong likelihood of streptococcal pharyngitis.

In the case where a diagnosis was made
based on clinical presentation and history, explain the criteria with an EBM argument
to support.

2.
Identify
the corresponding ICD-10 Code for the diagnosis.

Example:

J02.0

You
can find a link to an ICD-10 code finder by going to the Library
homepage>Browse guides>Course directory tab>select NR511 from the drop
down box>select Go. Otherwise, a google search will provide you with several
free options you can use.

3.
Provide
a treatment plan
for this patients primary diagnosis which includes:

a) Medication-all
prescriptions and OTC medications should be written in RX format with an EBM to
support:
Medication Name & Medication Strength
Dispensing quantity:
Sig:
RF:

b) Any
additional testing necessary for this particular diagnosis-typically
done when you need more information to confirm a diagnosis or differentiate the
diagnosis. Do not state all of the
possibilities that are available. To assess your diagnostic reasoning skill,
you will need to be decisive.

c) Patient
education-self explanatory

d) Referral-self
explanatory

e) F/U plan-include if and when the
patient should follow-up

*If part of the plan
does not warrant an action, you must explain why. ALL medication and testing decisions
(or decisions not to treat with medication or additional testing) MUST be
supported with an EBM argument as you did in Part 1.

Example:

a. Penicillin
VK 500mg, Disp #20, Sig: 1 tab twice daily x 10days; RF: 0 (full RX required)

Rationale: Penicillin is
the 1st line treatment recommendation for Group A Beta-hemolytic
streptococcal pharyngitis, based on their narrow spectrum of activity,
infrequency of adverse reactions, and modest cost. (Shulman, Bisno, Clegg, Gerber, Kaplan, Lee,
Martin, & Van Beneden, 2012). My
patient has no noted allergies, so PCN VK is appropriate.

b.
No additional testing will be performed
today.

Rationale: Point of care, rapid
strep antigen tests are highly specific (approximately 95%) when compared with
throat cultures, so false-positive test results are highly unusual. Consequently, a therapeutic decision can be
confidently made based on the positive result which was reported for this
patient in the scenario (Shulman, Bisno, Clegg, Gerber, Kaplan, Lee, Martin,
& Van Beneden, 2012).

c.
Patient instructions:
-take
all medication as prescribed (Reference, date)
-F/U
in 10-14 days if symptoms are not resolved or sooner if they become worse,
etc., (Reference, date)
-Etc..

4.
Provide
an active problem list
for this patient based on the information given in the case. This is where you list all of the known
medical problems of the patient. This is
different than a differential.

Example:

1. Streptococcal
Pharyngitis
2. Hypertension
3. Obesity

List
your references that were cited above according to APA rules. Format is not
graded (Canvas does a poor job in formatting the tabs and spaces) BUT all other
APA elements are required.

References
Shulman,
S., Bisno, A., Clegg, H., Gerber, M., Kaplan, E., Lee, G., Martin, J., &
Van Beneden, C. (2012). Clinical
Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Group A Streptococcal
Pharyngitis: A 2012 Update by Infectious
Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Disease, 55(10), e89. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis629

Guide to NR511 Case StudiesPart
1In
Part 1, you are given a patient scenario.
Using the information given, answer the following questions:1.
Briefly
and concisely summarize the H&P findings as if you were presenting it to your preceptor using the pertinent
facts from the case. Use shorthand where
possible and approved medical abbreviations.
Avoid redundancy and irrelevant information.Example:
J.S.
is a 34yo male with a CC of acute onset ST x 3 days [provide additional
information from the history that is relevant].
Physical
exam is significant for [provide relevant physical exam findings].*Do
not simply rewrite the information as it is presented in the case report. This
should mimic how you would present this patient to your preceptor. 2.
Provide
a differential diagnosis (plural) which might explain the patients chief
complaintalong
with a brief statement of pathophysiology for each. Example:Diagnosis
#1-Pathophysiology
statementDiagnosis
#2-Pathophysiology
statementDiagnosis
#3-Pathophysiology
statement3.
Analyze
the differential by
using the pertinent findings from the history and physical to argue for or
against a diagnosis. Rank the
differential in order of most likely to least likely.(This
is where you present your argument for EACH DIAGNOSIS in your differential
using the patients subjective and objective information that was given).Example:Diagnosis
# 1, 2, & 3 (provide an analysis for each of the diagnoses listed above)A
brief argumentas to why this condition should be considered plus:-Pertinent
positive symptoms which support the diagnosis-Pertinent
negative symptoms which support the diagnosis4.
Identify any additional tests and/or
procedures that you feel is necessary or needed to
help you narrow your differential. All
testing decisions must be supported with an EBM argument as to why it is
necessary or pertinent in this case. If
no testing is indicated or needed, you must also support this decision with EBM
evidence.(This
is where you identify, based on what you know thus far, test or test(s) that
you would perform TODAY which would help you narrow your differential diagnosis). *Do not list all of the
possible tests that can be done. You are being evaluated on your diagnostic
reasoning skills as well your ability to make decisions that are in-line with
current practice recommendations. Just because a test is available does not
mean it needs to be done. Example: Lets
say my differential included bronchitis and pneumonia. In this case, a CXR might be useful in
differentiating the 2 conditions.
However, remember that you have to have an EBM argument for this
decision. So make sure you are
telling the reader why this is the best choice based on the literature (i.e.,
it is not enough to say the test and cite the author & date). In this instance, my argument might look like
this: According to the Infectious
Disease Society of America (2012) a CXR is considered the gold standard for
diagnosing pneumonia. Keep in mind that
you also need an EBM argument if you decide NOT to test too. Part
2In
Part 2 you might be given some additional history, exam or test findings. Using this information and the
information in Part 1, answer the following questions:1.
What
is your primary diagnosis for this patient? Tell the reader how you came to this
conclusion using the information that you were given (i.e., CXR result, lab
result). Interpret the results into your
diagnosis decision (i.e., tell how this information helped you to narrow your
differential to the one diagnosis that you chose). Example:Diagnosis:
Pharyngitis, streptococcalRationale:
The CBC results are
normal which rules out infection and anemia. The RSA test was + which tells me
that she has a very strong likelihood of streptococcal pharyngitis.In the case where a diagnosis was made
based on clinical presentation and history, explain the criteria with an EBM argument
to support. 2.
Identify
the corresponding ICD-10 Code for the diagnosis.Example:J02.0You
can find a link to an ICD-10 code finder by going to the Library
homepage>Browse guides>Course directory tab>select NR511 from the drop
down box>select Go. Otherwise, a google search will provide you with several
free options you can use.3.
Provide
a treatment plan
for this patients primary diagnosis which includes: a) Medication-all
prescriptions and OTC medications should be written in RX format with an EBM to
support:Medication Name & Medication StrengthDispensing quantity:Sig:RF:b) Any
additional testing necessary for this particular diagnosis-typically
done when you need more information to confirm a diagnosis or differentiate the
diagnosis. Do not state all of the
possibilities that are available. To assess your diagnostic reasoning skill,
you will need to be decisive.c) Patient
education-self explanatoryd) Referral-self
explanatorye) F/U plan-include if and when the
patient should follow-up*If part of the plan
does not warrant an action, you must explain why. ALL medication and testing decisions
(or decisions not to treat with medication or additional testing) MUST be
supported with an EBM argument as you did in Part 1. Example:a. Penicillin
VK 500mg, Disp #20, Sig: 1 tab twice daily x 10days; RF: 0 (full RX required)Rationale: Penicillin is
the 1st line treatment recommendation for Group A Beta-hemolytic
streptococcal pharyngitis, based on their narrow spectrum of activity,
infrequency of adverse reactions, and modest cost. (Shulman, Bisno, Clegg, Gerber, Kaplan, Lee,
Martin, & Van Beneden, 2012). My
patient has no noted allergies, so PCN VK is appropriate. b.
No additional testing will be performed
today.Rationale: Point of care, rapid
strep antigen tests are highly specific (approximately 95%) when compared with
throat cultures, so false-positive test results are highly unusual. Consequently, a therapeutic decision can be
confidently made based on the positive result which was reported for this
patient in the scenario (Shulman, Bisno, Clegg, Gerber, Kaplan, Lee, Martin,
& Van Beneden, 2012). c.
Patient instructions: -take
all medication as prescribed (Reference, date)-F/U
in 10-14 days if symptoms are not resolved or sooner if they become worse,
etc., (Reference, date)-Etc..4.
Provide
an active problem list
for this patient based on the information given in the case. This is where you list all of the known
medical problems of the patient. This is
different than a differential.Example:1. Streptococcal
Pharyngitis2. Hypertension3. ObesityList
your references that were cited above according to APA rules. Format is not
graded (Canvas does a poor job in formatting the tabs and spaces) BUT all other
APA elements are required.References Shulman,
S., Bisno, A., Clegg, H., Gerber, M., Kaplan, E., Lee, G., Martin, J., &
Van Beneden, C. (2012). Clinical
Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Group A Streptococcal
Pharyngitis: A 2012 Update by Infectious
Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Disease, 55(10), e89. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis629

Mr. Byrne can’t understand why scolding his seventh-grade students for disruptiv

Mr. Byrne can’t understand why scolding his seventh-grade students for disruptive classroom behaviors makes them more unruly. Explain Mr. Byrne’s predicament in terms of operant conditioning principles. Show how he could use operant conditioning techniques to (a) reduce disruptive behaviors and (b) increase cooperative behaviors.