Criminal Justice agencies often gather large quantities of variables to be used in descriptive analyses.

500-700 words 3 references 

Criminal Justice agencies often gather large quantities of variables to be used in descriptive analyses. That is, to help describe situations, populations, and so on. For instance, the Department of Corrections collects data on inmates. Variables often include crime type, race, gender, originating jurisdiction (where they were convicted), education level, and many others. 
These data are often captured categorically rather than numerically. For instance, education level might be captured by simply identifying the name of the highest grade an offender achieved, such as high school diploma or GED, Bachelor’s degree, Associates degree, and so forth. Similarly, race data are most often captured by recording the label of the race the offender belongs to, such as Caucasian, African American, Asian, Native American, Pacific Islander, and so on. These labels have no inherent numerical value because they are simply categories. Thus, they are categorical variables. 
You cannot use traditional statistical analysis to investigate relationships between categorical variables because they are not numbers. Instead, you would use nonparametric tests, such as the chi-square test of independence. You will use this test to investigate the data below. 
This assignment has 2 steps. 
Step 1: Watch both of the following videos regarding chi-square analysis: 

Filling Out Frequency Table for Independent Events 
Contingency Table Chi-Square Test

Step 2: Calculate chi-square using the data in the table below, this Chi Square Example Handout, and the Distribution Values Chart that go with this IP. 
Using the Chi-Square Example Handout and the Chi-Square Distribution Values Chart as guides to figure the calculations, calculate chi-square for the following data:
 
 Originating Jurisdiction              Caucasian               African American  
Denver County                                        16                                             3  
El Paso County                                           4                                              6  
Pueblo County                                           6                                             15 

Then, answer the following questions about your results:

What is the column total for Caucasian?  
What is the column total for African American?   
What is the row total for Denver County?  
What is the row total for El Paso County?   
What is the row total for Pueblo County?  
Are race and originating jurisdiction significantly dependent? How do you know?   
What is the final chi-square value?  
How many degrees of freedom are there for this chi-square table?   
What is the value for the 0.05 significance level and 2 degrees of freedom on the Chi-Square Distribution Values Chart?   
Do you reject or accept the null hypothesis that states, “Originating Jurisdiction and Race are not significantly dependent (they are independent)”?

For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.

References

Khan Academy. (2017a). Contingency table chi-square test [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/statistics-probability/inference-categorical-data-chi-square-tests/chi-square-tests-for-homogeneity-and-association-independence/v/contingency-table-chi-square-test

Khan Academy. (2017b). Filling out frequency table for independent events [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/statistics-probability/inference-categorical-data-chi-square-tests/chi-square-tests-for-homogeneity-and-association-independence/v/frequency-table-independent-events

The purpose of this assignment is for students to learn how to use Microsoft Excel®for solving formulas.

Purpose of Assignment 
The purpose of this assignment is for students to learn how to use Microsoft Excel®for solving formulas. Managers and staff need to work with percentages daily in professional settings. Skills such as finding the percentage increase/decrease and using Excel®to convert from decimals to percentages and vice versa have become necessary. This assignment provides students with the practice of such fundamental quantitative concepts. 
Assignment Steps 
Resources: Fundamental Quantitative Concepts Exercises Excel®Template 
Savethe Fundamental Quantitative Concepts Exercises Excel® Template to your computer.
Readthe instructions on the first tab.
Completethe ten Excel®exercises.

In this assignment, you will write a paper based on Chapters I – IV (SEE BELOW).

In this assignment, you will write a paper based on Chapters I – IV (SEE BELOW). It is important that we establish a solid foundation related to our knowledge and understanding of biostatics. The purpose of this paper is to reinforce comprehension of the core methods. Write a six page APA formatted paper not including the title page and reference page. Please use a minimum of six APA formatted references. Incorporate your approved topic, outline, and references from your Unit I Assignment into this research paper. 
o Chapter 1: Overview of Biostatistics
o Chapter 2: Quantifying the Extent of Disease
o Chapter 3: Quantifying the Extent of Disease 
o Chapter 4: Summarizing Data Collected in the Sample 
Be sure to include the following within your paper: 
           Based on your readings and understanding of statistics, identify key activities and terminology related to biostatistics in public health and medical research. 
          How have you applied biological statistical procedures related to your course units? Please list specific examples and be sure to cite accordingly. 
       List examples of how you have computed and interpreted the measures to compare the extent of a disease. 
      Give specific data that has been used within a sample. How do we ensure the validity of this data? 
      What methods have you used to compute and interpret probability for biostatical analysis? Please discuss. 
      How have you proposed solutions to public health problems based on biostatistical methods? 
     Give examples of how you would define point estimate, standard error, confidence level, and margin of error. 
      How would you compare and contrast standard error and margin of error?

   The Final Paper provides you with an opportunity to integrate and reflect on

  
The Final Paper provides you with an opportunity to integrate and reflect on what you have learned during the class.
 
The question to address is, what have you learned about statistics? In developing your responses, consider—at a minimum—and discuss the application of each of the course elements in analyzing and making decisions about data (counts and/or measurements).
 
The course elements include
 
Descriptive statistics.
Inferential statistics.
Hypothesis development and testing.
Selection of appropriate statistical tests.
Evaluating statistical results.
The Final Paper
 
Must be three to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Must include a separate title page with the following:
Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted
Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
Must use at least three scholarly sources in addition to the course text.

  Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study< Due Week 10 and worth 140 points Im

 
Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study< Due Week 10 and worth 140 points Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have  begun to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in  your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of  product. Your boss wants to solve the problem at hand and has asked you  to investigate. You have your employees pull thirty (30) bottles off the  line at random from all the shifts at the bottling plant. You ask your  employees to measure the amount of soda there is in each bottle. Note:  Use the data set provided by your instructor to complete this  assignment.       Bottle Number   Ounces   Bottle Number   Ounces   Bottle Number   Ounces     1   14.23   11   15.77   21   16.23     2   14.32   12   15.80   22   16.25     3   14.98   13   15.82   23   16.31     4   15.00   14   15.87   24   16.32     5   15.11   15   15.98   25   16.34     6   15.21   16   16.00   26   16.46     7   15.42   17   16.02   27   16.47     8   15.47   18   16.05   28   16.51     9   15.65   19   16.21   29   16.91     10   15.74   20   16.21   30   16.96 Write a two to three (2-3) page report in which you: Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles. Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles. Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle  contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Clearly state the  logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test. Provide the following discussion based on the conclusion of your test: a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a  bottle of soda, speculate on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest  the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future. Or b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not  supported or justified, provide a detailed explanation to your boss  about the situation. Include your speculation on the reason(s) behind  the claim, and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this  issue in the future. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with  one-inch margins on all sides. No citations and references are required,  but if you use them, they must follow APA format. Check with your  professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the  student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date.  The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required  assignment page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Calculate measurements of central tendency and dispersal. Determine confidence intervals for data. Describe the vocabulary and principles of hypothesis testing. Discuss application of course content to professional contexts. Use technological tools to solve problems in statistics. Write clearly and concisely about statistics using proper writing mechanics.

Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study Imagine you are a manager at a major

Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study
Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have begun to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Your boss wants to solve the problem at hand and has asked you to investigate. You have your employees pull thirty (30) bottles off the line at random from all the shifts at the bottling plant. You ask your employees to measure the amount of soda there is in each bottle. Note: Use the data set provided by your instructor to complete this assignment.

Bottle Number   Ounces     
1                                     14.23  

11                                  15.77

21                                  16.23

2                                      14.32

12                                   15.80

22                                   16.25

3                                       14.98

13                                    15.82

23                                    16.31

4                                       15.00

14                                      15.87

24                                     16.32

5                                        15.11

15                                     15.98

25                                      16.34

6                                         15.21

16                                      16.00

26                                      16.46

7                                         15.42

17                                      16.02

27                                     16.47

8                                         15.47

18                                      16.05

28                                        16.51

9                                           15.65

19                                         16.21

29                                         16.91

10                                         15.74

20                                         16.21

30                                         16.96
Write a two to three (2-3) page report in which you:
Calculate the mean, median, and standard deviation for ounces in the bottles.Construct a 95% Confidence Interval for the ounces in the bottles.Conduct a hypothesis test to verify if the claim that a bottle contains less than sixteen (16) ounces is supported. Clearly state the logic of your test, the calculations, and the conclusion of your test.Provide the following discussion based on the conclusion of your test:a. If you conclude that there are less than sixteen (16) ounces in a bottle of soda, speculate on three (3) possible causes. Next, suggest the strategies to avoid the deficit in the future.
Or
b. If you conclude that the claim of less soda per bottle is not supported or justified, provide a detailed explanation to your boss about the situation. Include your speculation on the reason(s) behind the claim, and recommend one (1) strategy geared toward mitigating this issue in the future.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. No citations and references are required, but if you use them, they must follow APA format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Calculate measurements of central tendency and dispersal.Determine confidence intervals for data.Describe the vocabulary and principles of hypothesis testing.Discuss application of course content to professional contexts.Use technological tools to solve problems in statistics.Write clearly and concisely about statistics using proper writing mechanics.

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