A geopolitical community is geographical location that has boundaries and be ea

 A geopolitical community is geographical location that has boundaries and be easily located on a map. The geopolitical communities are either formed naturally or made by man. Naturally formed boundaries are as result of rivers, lakes, mountains and valleys whereas man-made boundaries maybe structural in nature like railway lines, roads and can also be legally constituted to form towns, state or countries. I live in North America which is a centrally located region. We are surrounded by communities from Europe to form a large single community (Jones, 2015).
       A phenomenological community is a social group that one is involved with and shares common interests, beliefs and goals.  It may be family, religion or cultural who share the same values. A phenomenological community is more relational rather than geographical (Jones, 2015).
Some of the challenges faced by the community health nurses are the culture differences and language barrier among different communities. Community health nurses face stresses and burnout in their line of work. The benefits relate to fast circulation of health information to enhance health awareness to communities across the globe. Community health nurses may assume that since the community is the same as theirs they are exposed to similar conditions and problems. Each community should be accessed as a different entity. The community health nurse maybe knows the individuals may be unsafe in their care.  To overcome these challenges nurses should be competent in their work including being knowledgeable with cultural differences in communities and setting of goals (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2015).
      Some of health issues in my community are climate changes and release of untreated gases in the air which affect human health. To include there are emerging opportunistic diseases and the HIV epidemic that pose challenge to health security. In my community there is a minority group. Some of the minorities’ communities are exposed to higher ratesof disabling illnesses and chronic diseases than the whites. Community health care nurses should treat them equally without discrimination or negative attitude (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2015).

This articleis an overview of the status of noncommunicable diseases in the worl

This articleis an overview of the status of noncommunicable diseases in the world. I think it is a very neat summary of what we have been calling chronic diseases. Noncommunicable diseases is a better term to encompass these diseases.  (http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1109345) 

Read the attached article and write a 400 word summary on the most impactful or meaningful findings to you.
  You may earn an additional 1 extra credit point by providing a (minimum) 100-word suggestion to help prevent chronic respiratory or chronic kidney disease in elderly women living in a nursing home with limited income and control over their diet.


To begin developing a campaign, first identify a public health issue which you are interested in. Then research the public health issue to determine whether it is actually a critical issue. For example, if you want to help reduce drug use among urban youth, you need to investigate whether this is a critical issue among that group or if there are other more pressing issues. Research is an essential component to building an effective public health campaign. You must also consider what marketing strategies you might employ and how you might utilize public relations with your target audience.
For this Discussion, revisit the media titled “Introduction to Communications, Marketing, and Public Relations for Public Health Leaders”. Consider the steps needed to create a public health campaign for the public health issue that interests you. In addition, review the article “Farmers sun exposure, skin protection, and public health campaigns: An Australian Perspective” and pay particular attention to the steps taken to develop this campaign. Finally, review the media titled “Introduction to Communications, Marketing, and Public Relations for Public Health Leaders” and think about how communication of public health issues is vital to the role of a public health leader.

Develop a 1000-word Discussion post that addresses the following:
1) Identify a public health issue for which you are interested in developing a public health campaign.
2) Explain why this issue warrants a public health campaign.
3) Identify a key element of health communication that is essential for a public health leader, in particular a leader who wishes to address the issue you have selected.
4) Describe one potential challenge of developing a campaign for your public health issue and explain one way you might address the challenge.

   1. What are the two scenarios/environments in which prolonged exercise does n

1. What are the two scenarios/environments in which prolonged exercise does not lead to a steady state?
2. Explain the process of using an incremental exercise test to measure VO2 max.
a. What physiological characteristics influence your VO2 max capabilities?
3. What is lactate threshold?
a- How does this threshold differ between trained and untrained?
b- What mechanisms lead to the lactate threshold?
4. What is the Respiratory Exchange Ratio and what does it tell us?
How do you know if you are burning predominantly fat versus carbohydrate?

Original work, proper English, include subheadings and and a introduction with a

Original work, proper English, include subheadings and and a introduction with a thesis statement.  Also add a conclusion
1. Describe Sickle Cell Disease, its prevalence, its incidence and general knowledge of the disease.
2. Discuss the laboratory testing that can be done.
3. Describe if chromosomal analysis is/was indicated and detail the chromosomal change that caused the disease if it is a chromosomal disorder.
4. Describe the disorder in terms of its origin as either a single gene inheritance, or as a complex inheritance and considerations for practice and patient education.
5. Describe the gene mutation of the sickle cell disease, as well as whether it is acquired or inherited, and how the mutation occurs.
6. Examine how genetics can influence policy issues.
7. Discuss any nutritional influences for this disease.
8. Process of nutritional assessment and counseling as it relates to health, prevention, screening, diagnostics, prognostics, selection of treatment, and monitoring of treatment effectiveness.
Include the following:
1. Guidelines and reasons behind the FDA regulations for introducing new pharmaceutical agents (policy).
2. The role that money and grants play in scientific advances/the economics of health care (capitalism).
3. The role and involvement family plays into the health care decision.

   1-One of the points I neglected to address in my post you brought up really w

1-One of the points I neglected to address in my post you brought up really well, and that is the issue with cultural disconnect. Your example with Amish families is an excellent point, because a nurse caring for a family in this situation that lacks the cultural awareness, could easily judge the patient’s family for their behavior.
Being aware and respectful of a patient and family’s cultural preferences and traditions is essential to providing that holistic care we talk about constantly, because it opens a door to furthering trust and open communication. We must always be willing to listen and understand an individual’s cultural beliefs and traditions, and be willing to hear the reasoning behind what they do. If we come off as judgmental or unwilling to listen, we could miss out on important information that could include herbal remedies the person may use or other traditional rituals. 

2- I actually enjoyed this topic and reading each students view and response. I completely agree with you Monzoor especially on the topic of health care deductibles. This is crazy to hear but even ourselves as nurse fear going to the doctor for the high deductable and outrageous money we will have to pay for test we perform all day long on others. This very situation happened to me last year. I went to the doctor for a simple cause and they wanted a whole bunch of test run, which I denied and still came out  with huge medical bill for simple lab work… $900 i owed! It was outrageous. I will calm down, but as you can see I feel very strongly on this matter. I hate seeing our society robbed of their hard working money when they want to go to the doctor to make sure they are healthy. How can people be less fearful of preventative care if it is going to take a life time to pay back. I really feel we must advocate for this to change, in order to see a healthier society.  

3-The population of immigrants in the United States has continued to settle in historical gateway states and cities in the west, southwest, and northeast. But the immigrant population has also dispersed to new destinations in the Midwest and southeast (Clough, Lee, & Chae, 2013). Many of these new destinations include rural and suburban areas without established infrastructures to deliver services in languages other than English and without professional providers familiar with the culture, histories, and subsequent needs of the populations being served.


  Microbiology Critical Thinking Day Three Answer critical Thinking question #

Microbiology Critical Thinking Day Three

Answer critical Thinking question #2 for chapter 6 on page 180. Answers should be submitted in word document with any associated references used
1 E.Coli was incubated with aeration in a nutrient medium containing two carbon sources, and the following growth curve was made from this culture
A) Explain what happened at the time marked x
B) Which substrate provided “better” growth condition for the bacteria? How can you tell?
2  Assume that after washing your hands you leave ten bacterial cells on a new bar of soap. You then decided to do a plate count of a soap after it was left in soap dish for 24 hours. You dilute one gram of the soap 1:106 and plate it on heterotrophic plate count agar. After 24 hours of incubation, there are 168 colonies. How many bacterial were on the soap? How did they get there?
3) Heat lamps are commonly used to maintain food at about 50 degree C for as long as 12 hours in cafeteria serving lines . The following experiment was conducted to determine whether this practice poses a potential health hazard.
Beef cubes were surface-inoculated with 500,000 bacterial cells and incubated at 43-53degree C to establish temperature limits for bacterial growth. The following results were obtained from heterotrophic plate counts performed on beef cubes at 6 and 12 hours after incubation.

Need response to the below post in APA format 1 page long 3 references that must

Need response to the below post in APA format 1 page long 3 references that must be peer review 
olon Cancer
            B.C. is a man age 44 with complaints in bowel patterns, bloody stools, cramps, gas, and abdominal pain. B.C. has noted unintentional weightloss of 20 pounds and is becoming weaker in strength noting the need for frequent naps, making it difficult to work full days. B.C. comes to clinic to see if a diagnosis can be made or a medication given to help his symptoms go away. He is hopeful to return to work soon as he is his only support system in the home. B.C. reports he has a family history of colon cancer and is concerned. This paper will discuss signs and symptoms of colon cancer, describe how genetics can have an affect on colon cancer, share normal cell function and associated alterations related to mutations in the cell, and explain how the extracellular component is affected.
Signs and Symptoms of Colon Cancer
Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. (CDC, n.d.) Screenings are available to detect precancer polyps that can be removed before they become cancerous and the recommendation as stated on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) website is age 50 to start colonoscopy screening and continuing as recommended until age 75 then as directed by your provider after age 76. (CDC, n. d.) Screening may start sooner if there is a close relative with polyp history or colon cancer.
Other bowel problems such as irritable bowel disease and chrons will require earlier screening and monitoring. Signs and symptoms of colon cancer can be abdominal pain, gas, cramps, bloating, change in bowel patterns such as constipation and diarrhea longer than four weeks and rectal bleeding. The later stages of colon cancer can show signs of fatigue, weakness, weightloss, and pencil like stools. (CDC, n. d.) Potential alterations may include mutations in the cell genes that can show hereditary colon cancer.
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a type of colon cancer that is inherited genetically. Polyps in the colon can be seen as early as the teenage years, mostly found in the late 30s, but can be delayed until after age 55 as stated by the CDC (n. d.). Delayed presentations of diseases can be quite troubling per Huether and McCance (2017) as many people already have children by this time that now have a 50 percent chance of developing the disorder as well. FAP is an autosomal recessive gene disorder that tends to present with fewer than 100 polyps, and also has a different mutated gene than in classic and attenuated types of FAP. (CDC, n.d.)
Associated Alterations
The adenomatous polyposis coli or APC is the gene that is mutated in FAP. It is found on the fifth chromosome’s long arm which is noted as the “q arm” and is found at 22.2 the mapping number noted to show how far from the centromere it is found. The location tells the number of polyps and the time frame to cancer. (CDC, n.d.) The APC gene makes the APC protein that acts as a tumor suppressor controlling cell division, attachment to other cells and if it moves within or outside the tissue, it also makes sure the correct number of chromosomes are present in the cell after cell division is completed. The CDC reports there has been 700 mutations found in the APC gene that shortens the proteins made making them dysfunction, unable to control cell growth which can lead to abnormal, cancerous cells.The most common mutation are changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the APC gene causing a change in the sequencing of the DNA. Huether and McCance (2017) shares changes in the sequences of DNA can lead to mutation changes due to the change in the amino acid sequence of the DNA helix.
Normal Cell Function
            Normal cells proceed through meiosis routinely and when correct DNA sequencing is accomplished the cells function normally stopping production of cells when enough have been made and continuing to divide when more cells are needed due to normal cell life cycle or can continue to divide when mutations cause a malfunction that stops or blocks the genes in tumor suppressor genes causing them to overproduce. The overproduction of cells can lead to cancer and hypertrophy of muscles affected. Tumor suppressor genes tell the body when enough cells have been obtained and to stop production if it is altered due to a mutation its tumor suppression ability is lost and tumors can be found (Huether and McCance, n. d.). The intacellular level is the effects of the mutation in the DNA sequencing, while the extracellular component is affected by continuing cell division which leads to unhealthy, ineffective cell functioning and cell death.
     In summary, as advanced practice nurses we will need to understand pathology of diseases and how the body is affected by these diseases to know which tests may need to be ordered to diagnose a patient. Along with diagnosis comes the personal factor for the patient in addressing how they may have acquired the disease, will it affect their offspring, and is it a life limiting disease. B.C. that came to clinic has many symptoms of colon cancer, a family history of colon cancer, and taking a complete medical history can lead to genetic diseases and educating the patient toward the future care of them and their offspring and genetic testings that can be done in the prevention of diseases, including colon cancer. Understanding normal cell functions allows us to explain to patients the pathology of their disease in terms they can understand and helps them participate in their care.   
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Colon cancer: Familial adenomatous polyposis. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

 Original work, proper English, include subheadings and and a introduction with

 Original work, proper English, include subheadings and and a introduction with a thesis statement.  Also add a conclusion 
Complete a paper with 1,000-1,250 words which include the following:
1. Discuss any ethical considerations for sickle cell disease.
2. Compare how genetics can improve care and health outcomes while reducing cost to usual practices.
3. Discuss the changes in approaches to care when new evidence warrants evaluation of other options for improving outcomes or decreasing adverse events.
4. Create a plan for how you might educate colleagues and/or patients on this genetic disorder.

  Read the IHI Triple Aim Initiative page on the Institute for Healthcare Improv

Read the IHI Triple Aim Initiative page on the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s website and watch the video “Design of a Triple Aim Enterprise”.
Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper that evaluates the impact of implementing Triple Aim goals nationally. Determine whether the three dimensions of Triple Aim would be achievable:

Improving quality and satisfaction for the patient experience of care
Improving the health of populations
Reducing the per capita cost of health care

Cite 3 reputable references to support your assignment (e.g., trade or industry publications, government or agency websites, scholarly works, or other sources of similar quality).
The following will need to be used to complete assignment

The IHI Triple Aim   http://www.ihi.org/Engage/Initiatives/TripleAim/Pages/default.aspx
Triple Aim for Populations  http://www.ihi.org/Topics/TripleAim/Pages/default.aspx
Design of a Triple Aim Enterprise  http://www.ihi.org/Engage/Initiatives/TripleAim/PublishingImages/IHI_DesignofTripleAimEnterprise.JPG