The purpose and functions of political parties in the United States.

Imagine that you’ve applied for an internship with your local Senator but there are many other people competing for the position. In order to determine the best person for the job, the Senator wants to determine how much each potential intern knows about the U.S. electoral system.
Create a 12-15 (content) slide presentation to illustrate your knowledge about the U.S. electorate, campaigns, and political parties. Your presentation must include the following:

The purpose and functions of political parties in the United States
The various ways U.S. citizens can participate in the campaign and election process
The function and purpose of caucuses and primary elections in political campaigns, particularly in the presidential election process
The role the national political party conventions play in the presidential election process
The presidential general election campaign process, and the important factors and events that influence it
The role the media (TV, radio, internet, social media) plays in modern political campaigns
The role and influence of money in the modern political campaign

Include photos, illustrations, videos, or audio clips, as appropriate. Document the source of each media item you include in your presentation.
Include citations for all unoriginal ideas, facts, or definitions in an APA-formatted reference list. Your final reference slide(s) should contain at least three resources. 
Note: A content slide does not include the presentation’s title slide and any slide(s) containing references.  There should be 12-15 content slides, a title slide, and whatever reference slides are necessary. 
Online campus students: Provide detailed speaker notes for each content slide in the presentation file. 
Submit your assignment.

In which respect does Iraq have very shallow roots as a nation?

one complete paragraph for each question.

In which respect does Iraq have very shallow roots as a nation? Explain how this feature has constituted an obstacle to the country’s political and economic development? 
How were Saddam Hussein and the men around him able to create and sustain such a powerful regime, especially after all the setbacks during the two decades before the 2003 war?

How have the frequent shifts from civilian to military rule and back again exacerbated Nigeria’s social and economic problems?

Title Page
Body – 5 pages in length
References page – in APA format.

issues that have contributed to the instability in Nigeria. 
government instability and the issues that changing governments has created
“How have the frequent shifts from civilian to military rule and back again exacerbated Nigeria’s social and economic problems? What direction do you feel Nigeria should take in the future? 

Discuss how changes in states policy mood and specific opinion help explain the recent developments in morality policies such as abortion and LGBTQ rights.

Questions
1.) Discuss how changes in states’ policy mood and specific opinion help explain the recent developments in morality policies such as abortion and LGBTQ rights.  In your opinion, whose opinion tends to matter the most in the opinion-policy linkage and why?
 
2.) Discuss at least four different types of taxes a state could use as potential own-source revenue for their expenditure policies. What are some of the economic and/or social reasons why a state would decide to use one taxation method over another?  In your opinion, should states develop a regressive or progressive tax system?  Why?
 
3.) Compare and contrast the three different economic-development strategies a state could emphasize.  What are some of the concerns about offering homogenous incentive packages to secure investments for these strategies? In your opinion, which is the best strategy and why?
 
4.) In what ways is a state’s pollution levels directly related to the structure of that state’s economy?  Why should we be concerned about the spillover effect and how has the federal government tried to regulate this type of interstate pollution in recent decades?  In your opinion, should the Environmental Protection Agency grant states administrative privacy?  Why?
 
5.) If it is true that parent and student choices create competitive market pressures on the U.S. education system (K-12 and higher ed.), discuss what these choices are and the different theoretical ways public education institutions will improve.  How can the federal and state governments facilitate a competitive education market?
 
6.) Explain how the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Citizen’s United v. FEC (2010) impacted the amount of money being raised and spent in state campaigns and elections.  Additionally, how did this decision alter the role party-allied interest groups play in these elections?  
When grading the essays, I will look for…
• Your ability to show you comprehend the material and provide a logical (reasonable use of supporting evidence with clear definitions of key terms or concepts) & consistent (position is maintained throughout the essay) argument.
• Your ability to acknowledging and critique opposing arguments in a logical way (i.e., a thoughtful discussion about the differences between the majority and any concurring or dissenting opinions in a case).
• The ABSENCE of outlines or bullet points that are essentially copy-and-pasted directly from my presentation slides (please do not do this).  You have a full week to prepare well-written essays, so you will lose points if you use an outline format in the exam.

Explain how conservatism and socialism are incorporated in the US political system.

Topic: Political Systems

Instructions:
Explain how conservatism and socialism are incorporated in the US political system. Use evidence (cite sources) to support your response from assigned readings or online lessons, and at least one outside scholarly source.
 Be sure to use examples.

Textbook:

 Magstadt, T. (2017). Understanding Politics: Ideas, institutions, and issues (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. 

Required Resources:
Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 3, 4; review Chapter 2 (Section: Ideologies and Politics in the United States)
Lesson
Additional scholarly sources you identify through your own research

 Lesson: Political Science Theories:
 
Theories
After the fall of Rome, within Western civilizations, the Church ultimately became interwoven with the centralized power of the appointed kings and queens. But over time, philosophers, and then the people, wondered if this was the best way to organize a government. They began by questioning the Church’s role in government, and ultimately expanded into an examination of the need for monarchies in general.
These thoughts began with the work of Niccolo Machiavelli in Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries. In The Prince, Machiavelli discusses the role of power in maintaining rule. Although not a direct link to democratic thought because he is advising a prince on how to keep his control over the people, his work was one of the first to hint at a need for a separation of church and state, which is a concept that still elicits controversy today.

Roughly a century later, Thomas Hobbes also questioned the role of the Church within the government. In writing Leviathan, Hobbes advocated the need for a large governmental structure (thus a leviathan) to rule over the people and he began to question the role of the Church in this process. Although a supporter of authoritarian governments, Hobbes was not a supporter of the Church’s power within government. Outside of this premise, he is also known for coining the phrase “state of nature.” This idea stems from his examination of what people look like without any government. He saw this state as very bleak, representing utter chaos and strife, because he theorized that without a strong ruling government to keep the peace, people would be at war with one another as they attempted to seize power from one another as a means of getting what they desired and as a way to avoid what they did not. However, in contrast to what he was proposing, by looking at humanity at its core, he introduced the idea of humanity as thinking for itself, which is the foundation of any democracy.
It was this concept that John Locke then built upon a few decades later by suggesting that the people move away from an all-oppressive ruler to a government based upon the rule of the citizens with a system of checks and balances,. Locke’s ideas serve as the basis of much of the U.S. founding documents, such as the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution.
Liberalism Defined

The Meaning of the Word Liberal
The term liberal in modern vocabularies has taken on an entirely different meaning from its original context. Liberal, when applied to political philosophy, represents a belief that the government should interfere very little in the daily lives of its citizens. This notion allows the individual to pursue his or her own interests without fear of extreme government regulation.
Since The Great Depression, which hit the world the hardest during the 1930s, the U.S. government has trended towards a larger government, as have other Western European nations. This happened as a result of the government providing many social services to protect its citizens from the likes of economic disaster and the toils of war. How far you think the government should go in aiding its citizens depends upon which political ideology most appeals to you. The classic liberal, a categorization credited to John Locke and also known as the modern conservative, tends to favor small government, whereas the modern liberal, modeled on the work of T. H.Green, prefers more governmental programs.
How far you think the government should go in aiding its citizens depends upon which political ideology most appeals to you. The classic liberal, a categorization credited to John Locke and also known as the modern conservative, tends to favor small government, whereas the modern liberal, modeled on the work of T. H.Green, prefers more governmental programs.
Capitalism and Socialism Compared

Capitalism represents the idea of the people controlling the means of production, with little to no interference by government. Capitalism is based on the idea of a market driven economy. This concept simply means that the market (or the masses) drive what is produced by industry with their demand for products. For example, if a great deal of people desire a certain item, then those who produce it will stay in business as long as the demand continues. However, if demand lags, or dies out altogether, that same industry will have to evolve to produce another in-demand product,or leave the market. This demand for product thus drives what is produced, and then determines which industries flourish. This system, in its truest sense, leaves government out of the economic process. Adam Smith, in writing The Wealth of Nations, was an advocate for this type of economic system. However, over time, it has been discovered that some regulation of business is needed, for instance, to preventi a monopoly in order to keep the market competitive.
In contrast to this model of low government involvement, socialism calls for the complete control of production by government. This is a concept originated by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, two political philosophers during the 19th century, in their Communist Manifesto. Neither man was a fan of the world in which he was raised, where the industrial revolution was taking off and people were suffering under the harsh working conditions found in pure capitalism. They believed that if they presented a new economic plan that replaced the newly established capitalist principles, they could create a happier world for the individual. This world included the human rights of the liberal but went even further to ensure an equal distribution of wealth and goods to the masses. Their theory argued for a socialist transition, where the government seizes all the means of production from the masses, as a way of creating the pathway to communism (or a perfect utopia).
As with any plan, variations in practice can occur. This is exactly what happened when Russia, the first country to implement the teachings of Marx, achieved its revolution. Thus, came the rise of Marxism-Leninism, which varied dramatically from Marx’s proposed plan. The practice of this ideology resulted in many years of conflict with the West during the Cold War. The principal powers during that time, the United States and the Soviet Union, featured two completely different philosophies regarding government and politics. In the end, the Soviet Union’s political, governmental, and economic approaches proved to be disastrous for its society, and the individuals within it. It featured a political process that decided who got what, when, and how in the most arbitrary manner, and used the government to execute those decisions brutally and ruthlessly. In the end, Soviet citizens, tired of being told they were part of one of the world’s great superpowers while waiting in line for basic necessities, gradually withdrew their interest in and support of their government, and the system eventually collapsed.
Summary
Studying politics has been an important part of the work of ancient and modern philosophers. As in most sciences, theories have evolved as new information has become available and new ways of exploring become possible. Liberalism split into conservatism and modern liberalism to form two different ideologies that same with capitalism and socialism.

 
 

Explain factors policy makers use when evaluating information provided to them in policy reports.

 
“Types of Policy Communication” Please respond to the following:

Explain at least two factors policy makers use when evaluating information provided to them in policy reports.
Explain why it is important for an analyst to know when to create a policy memorandum versus an executive summary when presenting information.

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