Characterize specific factors you believe are most important for a basic understanding of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

EACH QUESTION NEEDS TO BE 250 WORDS EACH
1. Characterize three specific factors you believe are most important for a basic understanding of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Be sure to justify your choices.
2. What characterizes a panic attack? Why is knowing whether they are expected or unexpected by the individual important from a diagnostic perspective?
3. Explain the two-factor theory of how a phobia is created and maintained.
4. Describe and contrast the nature of panic attacks when present in a diagnosis of Panic Disorder versus a diagnosis of Social Phobia. Discuss one pharmacological and one psychological treatment for symptoms of panic attacks.

What developmental considerations might aid a counselor in better understating the role and impact of developmental stage on addiction?

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. Main references come from Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018) and/or American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Assignments should, however, adhere to graduate-level writing and be free from writing errors. I have also attached my assignment rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please follow the instructions to get full credit. I need this completed by 03/23/19 at 5pm. 
Assignment – Week 4

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Developmental Influences and Considerations Application
Research has shown that for most people, problems associated with addiction often begin during adolescence. The unique developmental processes of this stage put individuals at a higher risk for substance misuse, and can have long-term detrimental effects on both substance and behavioral regulation. Research also indicates that challenging life experiences—such as abuse or traumatic loss—also increase risk of addiction, though not with the same impact across the lifespan. What developmental considerations might aid a counselor in better understating the role and impact of developmental stage on addiction?
For this Assignment, please select one of the three clients from the case studies provided in the Learning Resources this week.
Complete a 3- to 4-page paper in which you do the following:
· Provide a brief conceptualization of the client, including developmental considerations.
· Identify at least two risk factors relating to client’s developmental stage, and how you might address these using stage-focused interventions and goals.
· Describe how a developmental lens can inform your efforts to effectively facilitate assessment, diagnosis, and treatment.
· Justify your response with specific references to this week’s Learning Resources and the current literature

Required Resources
Readings

Van      Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A      strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

Chapter       12, “Gender, Sexual, and Sexual Orientation Differences” (pp. 473-505)
Chapter       6, “Addiction Across the Lifespan” (pp. 243-293)

American      Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual      of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

“Substance-Related       and Addictive Disorders” (pp. 481–589)

Becker,      J. B., Perry, A. N., & Westenbroek, C. (2012). Sex differences in the      neural mechanisms mediating addiction: A new synthesis and      hypothesis. Biology of Sex Differences, 3(1), 1–35.
     Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Lanfear,      C., Akins, S., & Mosher, C. (2013). Examining the relationship of      substance use and sexual orientation. Deviant Behavior, 34(7),      586–597.
     Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Mitchell,      M. R., & Potenza, M. N. (2015). Importance of sex differences in impulse      control and addictions. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 6, 1–4.
     Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Padilla,      Y. C., Crisp, C., & Rew, D. L. (2010). Parental acceptance and illegal      drug use among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: Results from a      national survey. Social Work, 55(3), 265–275.
     Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Document: Abstinence Exercise (PDF)
Document: Week 4 Case Studies (PDF)

What do twin and adoption studies tell us about the effects of nature (i.e., genetic influences) and nurture (i.e., environmental influences) on human development?

For this assignment you are to examine a topic of lifespan development connecting research and life. Below is a list of topics from which you are to select one for the Outline of the Final Paper and the Final Paper. Make sure that the topic you select is different from the topics you selected for the Week Two and Week Three assignments.

What do twin and adoption studies tell us about the effects of nature (i.e., genetic influences) and nurture (i.e., environmental influences) on human development? Select at least one of the main domains of human development (i.e., physical, cognitive, or social-emotional).
How much credit or blame do parents deserve for the way we are? Select at least one of the main domains of human development (physical, cognitive, or social-emotional) for your answer.
To what extent are the lives of adolescents and young adults shaped by parental and peer influences?
Why do we have a need to belong (to affiliate with others)?
How do our bodies and minds change from early to late adulthood?
What are the factors that affect our well-being as middle aged and older adults?
Why are some people attracted to members of their own sex whereas others are attracted to members of the opposite sex?  
How do memory and intelligence change as we age?
Does an infant’s temperament shape his/her cognitive and socio-emotional development?  
Are babies pre-wired for survival?
Are adolescents more likely to engage in risk-taking behavior than older adults?
Can physical exercise affect cognitive performance in old age? Consider the time of occurrence of physical exercise (i.e., earlier in life or during old age) in your answer.
Are there personality traits related to longevity?
Does bilingualism improve brain functioning?
Why do students in the United States tend to under-perform in math and science?

Once you have chosen your topic, examine the various theories of human development learned in the course and choose one or two that best assist you to understand the issues involved in your topic.
 
Review the following APA Sample Outline Handout for information on creating an outline.For this outline, address the following:

Examine various theories of human development, describing relevant terminology, and addressing how the theory assists in the understanding of issues involved in the selected topic.
Identify and describe at least two domains of human development (physical, biological, emotional, cognitive, and/or social) and how they are impacted by the chosen topic.
Identify and describe the stages of development that are affected by the chosen topic.
Describe the cultural and historical perspectives of the chosen topic, demonstrating an understanding of how the topic has been perceived over time and by other cultures. Provide relevant examples.

 Writing the Outline for the Final Paper
 
The Outline:

Must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages), and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a title page with the following: 

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted

Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. 

Begin with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define all concepts that will be discussed in the paper.
For example, if you select “How do memory and intelligence change as we age?”, as your topic, then you will need to define the terms memory, intelligence and aging.

Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. 

Conclude with an answer to the selected question. Did the evidence you surveyed answer the question satisfactorily? Include your analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the available evidence.
If possible, suggest the course that future research should take if answers to the selected question are less than conclusive.

Must use at least five scholarly sources, all of which must come from the Ashford University Library or Google Scholar. 

It is important that you ask yourself if the articles specifically address the selected topic. It is not always easy to find the right articles. Thus, give yourself some time to search before you finalize your selection.  
You may reference your textbook and other required materials from the course; however, these will not fulfill the resource requirement.

Must include an annotated bibliography which briefly summarizes each article including the purpose of the investigation, its methodology, and results.
 

If possible, select peer-reviewed articles that summarize the evidence available in a given field of study (e.g., meta-analysis combines the findings of different studies to uncover trends, commonalities and differences).
Order the articles in the way you think you will discuss them in your paper. Then develop a summary of the scientific evidence that answers the question you selected.

Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. 

The reference section will be the final page of the paper.

Analysis of the sociocultural risk factors contributing to a rise in eating disorders in both men and women in a variety of racial and ethnic groups.

Post an analysis of the sociocultural risk factors contributing to a rise in eating disorders in both men and women in a variety of racial and ethnic groups. Include in your analysis an explanation of the factors that present the most risk for these groups, as well as your thoughts about why there has been an increase in and “spread” of these disorders.

What are some reasons for and against eating meat?

Read the following instructions carefully. Write a paper totaling 1500 words, answering questions from Section A (750 words total) and questions from Section B (750 words total). Please include little to no quoted material in your paper. The point is to get you to describe and characterize the material, not to just import the words of others. If you must quote, just include a parenthetical citation at the end of the quote, like this: “(Author Name, Book Title, Page Number).” There is no need to provide a bibliography. Do not go significantly over or under the word limit. The word “significantly” here is a judgment call on my part, but in order to be on the safe side, keep it to no more than 100 words over or under the limit. Refer to Class Schedule for due date. An assignment link will be created on Blackboard and you will be able to upload it closer to the deadline. A late penalty will be applied to any paper turned in after this time. The penalty is: one third of a letter grade deduction for each day the paper is late. So, for example, if a paper is turned in the following morning, and if the paper without the late penalty is given the grade of B, it will become a B- due to its being turned in one day late. Answer one question from Section A and one question from Section B. Section A — Answer one from the following options: 1. Describe Thomson’s arguments for the permissibility of abortion. Then attack them. Describe Marquis’ argument for the immorality of abortion. And then attack his argument. In this debate, which of the two thinkers gets it right? Finally, why do you think abortion is such a thorny issue? 2. Focus on two types of killing: euthanasia and capital punishment. Describe what each of these are, and give reasons for and against the rightness of both. Ultimately, tell me if society should allow these practices. Section B — Answer one from the following options: 1. Why should society allow individuals to use drugs? Contrastingly, why should society not allow individuals to use drugs? Describe and then attack the argument that drugs are harmful to the user. In the end, is this a good argument? Describe and then attack the argument that drugs are harmful to the user’s friends and family. In the end, is this a good argument? Should the government allow us to make choices that cause ourselves great harm? 2. What are some reasons for and against eating meat? After running through a list of reasons in favor of it and reasons against it, determine the strongest argument on each side. Then tell me whether you are convinced by either argument, and why or

Analyze and describe issues related to the testing of cultural and linguistic minorities.

Ethical and Professional Issues in Psychology Testing
Prior to beginning work on this assignment, please read the required textbook chapters and articles for this week.
Create a PowerPoint presentation with 16 to 20 slides (not including the title and reference slides) entitled Ethical and Professional Issues in Psychological Testing. Your presentation must provide 2 to 3 slides for each of the required topics and include appropriate citations of your referenced sources. Separate reference slides, which follow APA formatting guidelines for a References page, must be included at the end of the presentation. You must create your own template and organize your presentation in the sequence provided. Do not use a font smaller than 20 pt. You are encouraged to insert relevant figures and graphics. Make sure to appropriately cite any images you use. If you include a table or figure from a journal article, cite it according to APA guidelines. The notes section of each slide must include the text for oral comments you would make while presentating the materials to a live audience.
References must be cited according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. For assistance with creating a visually engaging and readable presentation, you may review Garr Reynolds’s tips for creating presentations.
The presentation must cover each of the following topics in the order presented below.
The Ethical and Social Implications of Testing

Provide an overview and brief evaluation of the ethical and social implications of psychological assessment.

Professional Responsibilities

Describe the responsibilities of both test publishers and test users.

Testing Individuals Representing Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

Analyze and describe issues related to the testing of cultural and linguistic minorities.

Reliability

Explain the common sources of measurement error and how measurement error can impact reliability.

Validity 

Create a diagram or figure to compare the types of validity discussed in the textbook.
Describe the extravalidity concerns related to testing.
Review the articles by Fergus (2013), Kosson, et al. (2013) and Mathieu, Hare, Jones, Babiak, & Neumann (2013). Analyze the information presented in these articles on factor analysis and describe how it is used to validate the constructs of the instruments.

Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction

Compare clinical and statistical prediction of mental health decisions based on the work of Ægisdóttir, et al. (2006) and Grove & Lloyd (2006).

Application One: An Ethical and Professional Quandry

Select one of the Ethical and Professional Quandries in Testing from Case Exhibit 1.2 in your textbook and describe the ethical issues specific to the scenario you selected. Include an analysis of the relevant principles from Standard 9 in the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct
Taking on the role of the psychologist or counselor in the chosen scenario, describe how you might respond to the challenge you selected and provide a brief rationale for your decision.

Application Two: Evidence-Based Medicine

Summarize Youngstrom’s (2013) recommendations for linking assessment directly to clinical decision making in evidence-based medicine.
Elaborate on each of Youngstrom’s recommendations by providing practical examples that illustrate the relevance of the recommendations in a clinical setting.

Application Three: Selecting Valid Instruments

Create a research hypothesis or brief clinical case scenario in which you must select an instrument to measure intolerance for uncertainty.
Use the information in the Fergus (2013) article to support which measure to use.

The presentation

Must consist of 16 to 20 slides (not including title and reference slides) that are formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate title slide with the following:

Title of presentation
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted

Must use the assigned chapters in the course text, Standard 9 from the American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, and the 3 required peer-reviewed articles assigned for Week One.
Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include separate reference slides formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Discuss and provide examples of the unique ethical concerns regarding the psychological treatment of children.

Ethics are of concern in the psychological treatment of children.  
Discuss and provide examples of three of the unique ethical concerns regarding the psychological treatment of children. Identify ways to resolve these ethical concerns. 

Explain the potential impact of gender stereotyping language on the development of children and adolescents.

  
Response 1
· In your current position (e.g., professional, student, husband, wife, partner), reflect how you may have used language that promotes gender stereotypes:            In my current position as a young professional, I go out on many job interviews or at least meet with likeminded companies to build business relationships. I work with children and their families so often times our professional discussions revolve, respectfully, around the home structure of others. I was in an interview this morning where the individual continuously mentioned mothers instead of fathers. I found that this is a common error many professionals make in that women are often the care takers. 
· Consider how language we have heard in everyday life promotes gender stereotypes. Think about language that may promote gender stereotypes:       I think that everyday language has a strong impact on how we view gender stereotypes as far as how advertisements are structures, how tv families attempt to model everyday life, how questions are asked to us. I spend a lot of my time making phone call as well, I can’t remember the number of times a telemarketer has called asking “Hi, may I speak to your manager, is he in?” The assumption that my manager is a man is a gender stereotype many can relate to. 
· Determine the audience who you would like to learn this information: I would specifically like that parents learn and understand the impact of their gender stereotypes, expectations, and language used with their children. I think children idolize their parents and will do nearly anything to be like them. It is important for other caregivers to practice this awareness as well but there is nothing that will match the impact that comes from a parent. 
Thinking back to some of my recent actions and choices in the work place where I encourage children to do their best, I may have spoken differently female students than I had male students. Many times I mention to the boys comments along the lines of “You’ll rock those exercises today!” Whereas the girls I believe I take a more tender approach and typically say “Wow, sis you’re doing so well, keep it up!” Just as was mentioned in the text, often times teacher don’t realize they “are conveying messages of stereotypical gender behavior through interactions” such as language (Derman-Sparks, Olsen Edwards, 2010).
      I feel that initially the impact this selective language has on gender identity and development is minimal. Studies such as Crosnoe report support the notion that earlier in life children tend to compare themselves to their peers regardless of gender (Crosone, Riegle-Crumb, Field, Frank, Muller). I find that in the older children that I work with there is more a “gender divide” in that the girls are more aware of their comparison to their male counter parts. Because of the nature of where I work, there are academic/analytical aspects as well as physical/strength aspects, both areas that each gender can excel. However, through language choice regarding different gender stereotypes, such as, “you did well at that chin up, for a girl” does not help bridge the gap.
      Just as was briefly mentioned, the language which separates the genders, male and females based on stereotype only makes my job harder. Female students will not excel because of a sense of “self ful-filling prophecy” where in they are told they can only do so well, so they will only try so hard. I fell that alterations in language can help open the door regarding gender stereotypes. For both male and female students, a “sky’s the limit”- open ended approach the certain aspects of language can only help them achieve all that they possibly could be.
Derman-Sparks, L., & Olsen Edwards, J. (2010). Anti-bias education for young children and ourselves. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.90-100
Crosnoe, R., Riegle-Crumb, C., Field, S., Frank, K., & Muller, C. (2008). Peer group contexts of girls’ and boys’ academic experiences. Child Development, 79(1), 139–155.
Response 2

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Describe and analyze the examples of language you might have used in the past that promote gender stereotypes:
An example of language that may have promoted gender stereotypes would be being told things like “sit like a lady” or “act like a lady”. These phrases were mostly used when out in public. Being that I was the only girl growing up, I would play with the boys a lot, and by being around them so much I picked up on some of the things they did. I quickly realized that I would get a very different response from my parents when I would mimic the behaviors the boys did. I remember one day we were at a restaurant, and my brothers were throwing the paper from straws at each other. I thought it looked pretty funny and tried it myself, when my mother saw me throwing the paper balls with the boys, she pulled me to the side and told me that little girls should be seen on their best behavior and shouldn’t participate in the behaviors that boys do. I feel like this teaches girls that they cannot participate in the same things as boys because boys and girls have to act different from each other. 
Explain the influence such language might have had on gender identity formation in that specific case.
It is very common for parents to have these ideas of what behaviors are acceptable for their daughters versus their sons. Early on girls are encouraged to show more nurturing characteristics while boys may be ridiculed if they showed the same behavior. 
Explain the potential impact of gender stereotyping language on the development of children and adolescents with whom you work. 
According to Derman-Sparks (2010), around age 3 children begin to form ideas about their behavior, activities, as well as toys that they think are acceptable for their gender. Being that I would with children on the autism spectrum communication and behavior is a big deal. Depending on where a child is on the spectrum I feel that there may be a disconnect with their awareness of self. I believe that gender stereotyping may make it harder for them to identify with activities or methods that they may find enjoyable. 
References 
Derman-Sparks, L., & Olsen Edwards, J. (2010). Anti-bias education for young children and ourselves.

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Define gender and sexuality, the difference between the two and the influences of culture on these aspects of human development.

Before completing this discussion, be sure to review Chapter 10 in your text and the Factors that Influence Sexual Orientation and Gender Socialization, videos. After examining the research in human development presented in your required resources, complete the following discussion:
 
Ideas and perceptions of gender and sexuality are strongly dependent on cultural factors and influences.  Define gender and sexuality. What is the difference between the two? Describe the influences of culture on these aspects of human development.
 
In addition, examine how stereotypes and other cultural factors influence our perception of acceptable expressions of gender and sexuality. Give examples illustrating how a particular expression of gender or sexuality may be acceptable in one culture and unacceptable in another. Predict how the expression or repression of a person’s gender and/or sexuality may influence the person’s interpersonal development.
 
Your initial post must be at least 300 words and use a minimum of one scholarly source located in the Ashford University Library or on Google Scholar