Discuss the importance of rationale decision-making in an organization.


Our text suggests that objective reality is often significantly  different from perceived reality and is an important variable to  consider when making decisions within an organization. In addition,  attribution theory describes how people create the explanations for  their own and others’ actions, as well as the outcomes of the applied  behaviors. Based on these two premises, consider the following and then,  formulate an analysis about how attribution theory and bias (according  to chapter 8 in our text) can explain human behaviors within  organizations and industry.

Use, or closely follow, this template for your paper.
Consider the following information associated with attribution theory to support to your writing about decision-making: 

bounded reality
cognitive biases
conjunction fallacy
fundamental attribution error
creative decision making

Writing Content 


Based on our content this week, discuss the importance of rationale  decision-making in an organization, using necessary citations. Include  how bounded reality, cognitive biases, and conjunction fallacy might  affect decision-making.

Attribution Theory 

Explain attribution theory using necessary citations. Include a  discussion about the effects of consistency, consensus, distinctiveness,  and fundamental attribution error. Consider inclusion about the effects  of perception, primacy and recency effects, selective perceptions,  contrast effect, stereotyping to further support your discussion.

Personal Experience: Inaccurate Judgement 

Based on our content this week, consider your own experiences with  others. Have your actions ever been judged inaccurately by a person such  as a boss, a peer, or a family member? How could this experience  support your thesis about whether or not attribution theory and bias  affect human behaviors with organization?
Can self-serving, or other, bias affect one’s perception of a behavior?

Creative Decision Making 

Explain how creative decision-making can improve our ability to make  better decisions, considering the numerous obstacles to do so. Include  an analysis about how good decision making can potentially affect  productivity and job satisfaction.

Writing considerations:

The introduction paragraph should introduce your topic and clearly explain what the paper will address.
Headings can be used to organize your information. See template. (Each heading should include at least two paragraphs – minimum.)
Each paragraph should make a point which can be linked back to your  introduction paragraph. Design the topic sentence to embody what the  paragraph will entail.
The most important consideration in the body paragraphs is the  argument that you want to develop (is or is not perceptions, attribution  theory and bias applicable?) in response to the topic (applicability of  perception, attribution theory and bias). This argument is developed by  making and linking points in and between paragraphs.
The conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis (your suggestion  that perceptions, attribution theory and bias does or does not apply to  human behaviors in organizations.)

Your assignment should be a minimum of five to six double-spaced  pages, and should adequately discuss the topic, demonstrate maturating  self-awareness, and include at least one peer-reviewed source, in  addition to your text. Use the rubric to check for thoroughness. Include  frequent citation to resources.
The Ashford Library should be used as your primary resource for this  assignment, but other credible sources will also be accepted. Your  sources should be cited according to APA format as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..  
The paper 

Must be five to six double-spaced pages in length, not including the  title or references pages, and formatted according to APA style as  outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Must include a title page with the following: 

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted

Must begin with an introductory paragraph which will outline the two parts to be addressed within the paper.
Must address the topics with critical thought and support all assertions with peer-reviewed sources.
Must end with a conclusion that synthesizes your findings about attribution theory and bias effect on human behavior.
Must use at least one peer-reviewed sources from the Ashford University Library, not including your textbook.
Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the In-Text Citation Guide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the APA References List (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

Discuss the different states of consciousness and how they affect brain and bodily activity.

Psychologists have discovered that human beings experience several different states of consciousness during the course of a day. For example, people have times when they are especially alert and times when they are awake but not alert, often called “daydreaming.” Also, while people are asleep, they experience different stages of sleep, each characterized by different patterns of brain and bodily activity.

In a multi-paragraph essay, discuss the different states of consciousness that you have experienced in the past 24 hours, including any periods when you were asleep, alert, or “daydreaming.” Be sure to describe both the brain and bodily activity you experienced during each state of consciousness. Include information from class materials, readings, and research on states of consciousness to support your discussion.

How we can use operant conditioning to change the behavior of people and animals.

Psychologists like B. F. Skinner have studied how we can use operant conditioning to change the behavior of people and animals. Drawing on your personal experience, choose a person or animal whose behavior you want to change. (You may select your own behavior for this question if you wish.) How could you use operant conditioning to change the behavior of this person or animal?

In a multi-paragraph essay, describe your plan to change this behavior. Be sure to mention what type of reinforcer and reinforcement schedule you would use and explain why you made those particular choices. Include information from class materials, readings, and research on operant conditioning to support your discussion.

Identify trends you expect to emerge within the field of I/O psychology.

Assignment 3: Recognizing and Projecting Trends in I/O Psychology
Consider the trends discussed in the required readings for this module along with relevant learning from your courses throughout the MAIO program. Further, using the Argosy University online library resources and the Internet, choose one of the thirteen research areas suggested in the required reading article by Cascio and Aguinis (2008). Then, respond to the following:

Explain how societal events over this century have shaped the field of I/O psychology in general and your chosen research area specifically.
Identify trends you expect to emerge within the field of I/O psychology generally and your chosen research area specifically in the next ten years. Explain and support your predictions with evidence from scholarly literature.
Describe competencies you think will be especially important for an I/O professional for these future trends. Justify your reasoning for the importance of these competencies.

Your final product will be a 3- to 5-page Microsoft Word document written in APA format and utilizing at least three sources from professional literature. Professional literature may include the Argosy University online library resources, relevant textbooks, peer-reviewed journal articles, and websites created by professional organizations, agencies, or institutions (.edu, .org, and .gov). Your paper should be written in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
Cascio, W. F., & Aguinis, H. (2008). Research in industrial and organizational
psychology from 1963 to 2007: Changes, choices, and trends. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1062-1081. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.5.

Explain what it means for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a qualitative approach.

This week’s resources
Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016). The scholar-practitioner’s guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing.
· Chapter 7, “Quality Considerations”
Smith, J. K. (1984). The problem of criteria for judging interpretive inquiry. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 6(4), 379–391.
Discussion: Designing Qualitative Research
As you recall from earlier weeks, various philosophical orientations hold unique epistemological and ontological assumptions. These assumptions return to the forefront of attention when considering how to evaluate the rigor or quality of various qualitative research designs. 
Typically, when speaking of validity, qualitative researchers are referring to research that is credible and trustworthy, i.e., the extent to which one can have confidence in the study’s findings (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Generalizability, a marker of reliability, is typically not a main purpose of qualitative research because the researcher rarely selects a random sample with a goal to generalize to a population or to other settings and groups. Rather, a qualitative researcher’s goal is often to understand a unique event or a purposively selected group of individuals. Therefore, when speaking of reliability, qualitative researchers are typically referring to research that is consistent or dependable (Lincoln & Guba, 1985), i.e., the extent to which the findings of the study are consistent with the data that was collected.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
For this Discussion, you will explain criteria for evaluating the quality of qualitative research and consider the connection of such criteria to philosophical orientations. You will also consider the ethical implications of designing qualitative research.
With these thoughts in mind:
By Day 4
Post an explanation of two criteria for evaluating the quality of qualitative research designs. Next, explain how these criteria are tied to epistemological and ontological assumptions underlying philosophical orientations and the standards of your discipline. Then, identify a potential ethical issue in qualitative research and explain how it might influence design decisions. Finally, explain what it means for a research topic to be amenable to scientific study using a qualitative approach.
Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

How ICT may cause unhealthy mental conditions .

Annotation of a Qualitative Research Article
Submit: Annotation of a Qualitative Research Article
This week, you will submit the annotation of a qualitative research article on a topic of your interest. This annotation is a precursor to the annotated bibliography assignment due in Week 10. 
An annotation consists of three separate paragraphs that cover three respective components: summary, analysis, and application. These three components convey the relevance and value of the source. As such, an annotation demonstrates your critical thinking about, and authority on, the source topic. This week’s annotation is a precursor to the annotated bibliography assignment due in Week 10.
An annotated bibliography is a document containing selected sources accompanied by a respective annotation of each source. In preparation for your own future research, an annotated bibliography provides a background for understanding a portion of the existing literature on a particular topic. It is also a useful first step in gathering sources in preparation for writing a subsequent literature review as part of a dissertation. 
Please review the assignment instructions below and click on the underlined works for information about how to craft each component of an annotation. 
It is recommended that you use the grading rubric as a self-evaluation tool before submitting your assignment.
By Day 7
· Annotate one qualitative research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest.
· Provide the reference list entry for this article in APA Style followed by a three-paragraph annotation that includes: 
o A summary
o An analysis
o An application as illustrated in this example
· Format your annotation in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-spaced. A separate References list page is not needed for this assignment.
· Sample paper to assist with assignment
Thomée, S., Dellve, L., Härenstam, A., & Hagberg, M. (2010). Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults-a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 10(1), 66.
The topic of the qualitative study by Thomée, Dellve, Härenstam & Hagberg (2010) is “Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults”. The authors of this study were aimed on discovering a possible link between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and unhealthy mental conditions, including major depressive disorder (MDD), stress, and sleep disorders. This study doesn’t have a theoretical basis, because it is focused on creating a theory of how ICT may cause unhealthy mental conditions (Thomée et al., 2010).  Some previous studies have identified that frequent use of the internet, email, messengers, and computers, is associated with unhealthy mental conditions, however causal mechanisms were not identified (Thomée et al., 2010). Hence, the authors of this study conducted a semi-structured interview with 32 young adults who reported high ICT. Participants were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 28 high computer users, while the second group consisted of 20 high mobile phone users (Thomée et al., 2010). 
The semi-structured interviews were conducted by the main author of the research. The author used qualitative interviews, which means that participants were asked open questions about connection between ICT and unhealthy mental conditions. In addition, the participant’s mental condition was assessed by a physician (Thomée et al., 2010). The data acquired during the interviews was analyzed with a qualitative content analysis. These researchers created the model based on the analyzed data. The model presented possible paths for associations between ICT use and mental symptoms. It was found that the main cause of negative mental conditions is high quantitative use of computers and smartphones (Thomée et al., 2010). Participants who used computers for a long periods of time reported that they were stuck in different unproductive activities such as web surfing and playing games. As a result, they had a feeling of the wasted time. Some participants also claimed that high use of ICT leads to feeling of loneliness (Thomée et al., 2010). In addition, long use of computers may have impact on physiological health. 
In both groups, several people have reported perceived connection between high ICT use and different mental symptoms, including depression. Some of the participants had stress and sleep disturbances that are also associated with MDD. Six men and six women were diagnosed with a various psychiatric disorders. Four participants were diagnosed with a mild depression, while two participants were diagnosed with a moderate depression (Thomée et al., 2010). 
The authors claimed that physiological problems foster the depression. Participants with long periods spent using mobile devices reported similar problems. It can be explained by the fact that not responding to SMS or calls may cause a feeling of guilt (Thomée et al., 2010). The researchers also claimed that another possible factor causing depression is that people prefer to tell bad news via SMS than face to face. In addition, it was mentioned that certain technological factors like electromagnetic radiation may affect mental condition (Thomée et al., 2010). It is important to mention that some participants claimed that ICT is not a primary cause of depression and that depression should be associated with a working activities that are often done with a help of computers. The authors note that some studies have found a direct connection between high psychological demands at work and risks of MDD development (Thomée et al., 2010). 
The research question is well framed because it addresses a specific problem, and significant because it the problem it addresses is significant (Burkholder et al., 2016). Due to the rapid development of ICTs, it is important to conduct studies focused on discovering potentially negative impacts of computers and smartphones. The authors have provided a brief description of previous articles, hence relation of the research question to existing body of knowledge is quite strong (Thomée et al., 2010). According to some previous studies, 75% of 16-24-year-old Swedes used internet every day and more than 90% had computers. Another study described by the authors claim that ICTs provided both opportunities and risks, including negative impact on physiological and psychological condition (Thomée et al., 2010). Moreover, emailing and chatting were associated with depression and created symptoms that directly lead to MDD.  According to the APA (2013), stress, sleep disorders, loneliness, apathy, guilt, and depression are all criteria that can be used in diagnosing MDD in patients. These were all symptoms described by participants in this study (Thomée et al., 2010). Therefore, this article makes a significant contribution to an existing body of knowledge by providing detailed information about high ICT use and depression. 
The authors didn’t use any theory while conducting their research; instead these researchers derived their theory from the results of their research. This means that they used the inductive method (de Vaus, 2001). The research was aimed on interpreting answers to open-ended questions. All stages of the research were described in detail and in scientific language (Thomée et al., 2010). The research methods used in this qualitative study were therefore appropriate. The first method used was observation with a help of semi-structured interviews. The second method was interpretation that was made by coding of information acquired during the interviews and creating a model. Hence, the authors have used all methods appropriate to answer the research question (Thomée et al., 2010). 
It is also worth noting that the sample size used was not very big, but the amount of participants is enough for a qualitative study. It is possible that the study results were influenced by bias, because analysis and interviews were made by the main author (Thomée et al., 2010). Moreover, there are also some limitations presented in this study. Participants belonged to high achieving academic programs and their socio-economic status was not considered (Thomée et al., 2010). These specific issues pose some threats to generalization of the results. 
Finally, there were inclusion criteria used for participants. Only those who reported about high computer or mobile phone exposure and had at least two of the following symptoms: depression, stress, and sleep disturbances could become participants (Thomée et al., 2010). Here, there was a self-reporting, self-selecting sample of participants. Because almost all people in modern society use smartphones and computers, and only participants who claim to suffer from certain symptoms were considered, there would appear to be a link that might not be causal. Similarly, however, any variable could be used in the place of ICTs and might result in similar findings, regardless of the actual causation. Therefore, to insure more accurate results, it would be more effective to conduct research on people with high ICT use, and analyze how many of these people have symptoms of MDD, depression, stress, sleep disorders, or other unhealthy mental conditions.
This article addresses a meaningful gap in the other sources in this field, because it is focused on researching influence of modern technologies on mental condition. As discussed in the article, there are numerous problems directly and indirectly associated with smartphone and computer use (Thomée et al., 2010). Thus, the article fills a gap in the literature, because it is aimed on discovering connection between depression, sleep disorders, stress and ICT’s. The impact of ICT’s can be quite significant, because they can be used to avoid social interactions or even cause a psychological addiction. Modern technologies reduce the amount of real life communication, and this lack of communication may be related to high rates of MDD among young adult population (Thomée et al., 2010). Furthermore, communication over the internet is far different from real life communication, and the main difference is anonymity. People tend to act antisocially when they are protected by anonymity (Grigg, 2010). This can, of course lead to additional symptoms of depression, as antisocial behavior towards others, or anonymous cyberbullying, can affect the mental condition of the target.  
It can be claimed that this article informs future researches on depression by providing a valuable information about how ICT’s can contribute to the development of MDD and other related symptoms such as sleep disorders and stress. As mentioned above, MDD is often associated with sleep disorders and other unhealthy conditions, so it should be considered as a complex problem (APA, 2013). In addition, the qualitative methods used in this article can be applied to find out what factors participants perceive as the most contributing to development of their MDD. Hence, qualitative interviews can be potentially helpful for identifying the major causes of MDD. Methods used in this research can also be applied to codify the qualitative interviews and create a model describing relation between different factors and MDD.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Burkholder, G. J., Cox, K. A., & Crawford, L. M. (2016). The scholar-practitioner’s guide to research design. Baltimore, MD: Laureate Publishing.
de Vaus, D. A. (2001). Research design in social research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Grigg, D. W. (2010). Cyber-aggression: definition and concept of cyberbullying. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(02), 143-156.
Thomée, S., Dellve, L., Härenstam, A., & Hagberg, M. (2010). Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults-a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 10(1), 66.

Evaluate how well you think psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior in general.

Submit a 2- to 3-page paper that includes the following:

Briefly explain Freud’s views on the levels and structure of personality in general.
Analyze how Freud’s ideas explain Steve’s behavior. In your answer, be sure to identify the stage of psychosexual development in which Steve is likely fixated.
Based on what you have studied so far, evaluate how well you think psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior in general.
reference sigmund freud “steve” case study

Select one theorist from among Jung, Erikson, Adler, Horney, and Sullivan as the

Select one theorist from among Jung, Erikson, Adler, Horney, and Sullivan as the subject of your Discussion post. In addition to contributions, consider the strengths and limitations of this individual’s personality theory. Identify the theorist that you will discuss, and note your selection in the title of your post.

Explain how your selected theorist has provided the most practical or useful ideas for understanding of one of the following: self, others, or daily interactions.
Briefly describe one specific concept or idea developed by your theorist that is particularly helpful in explaining one of the focus areas (i.e., self, others, or daily interactions) and your reasoning.
Conclude by noting one strength and one limitation of viewing personality from your selected theorist’s perspective.

Is blackout drinking the same as passing out from alcohol?

PSY 101 – General Psychology   
  USE psychology 8th edition
 • Read the article on the next page from The Philadelphia Inquirer entitled “Is blackout drinking the same as passing out from alcohol? A Penn psychologist explains” by Stacey Burling. 
 • Type responses to the following: 
 1) Specify at least two fields of psychology that the article content falls into and explain a) the nature of each field and b) why the article content falls into each field. Be sure to include specific content from the news article to illustrate your points in this section. 
 2) Explain in detail how this news event connects to two distinct and specific course concepts, theories, or research findings (write at least one paragraph per connection). You must use your textbook to find these course connections and provide the page number of the material you are using from the textbook for each connection. The material you connect to the article content may come from any section of the textbook, but be sure to connect to specific, rather than general, concepts. For example, conditioning is a general concept, operant conditioning is more specific, and negative reinforcement is even more specific. The more specific you are in your connections, the better. Be sure to include specific content from the news article to illustrate your points in this section. 
 • To submit your homework, click on the Homework #2 assignment link in the Homework module of Canvas. 
Is blackout drinking the same as passing out from alcohol? A Penn psychologist explains Stacey Burling – The Philadelphia Inquirer – 10/4/18 
There’s been a lot of talk lately about drinking and memory, particularly about blackouts during heavy drinking. As he was questioned about allegations that he engaged in sexual assault while drunk in high school, Supreme Court nominee Brett Kavanaugh denied ever blacking out. This may clear up some misconceptions. 
What does it mean to black out while drinking? First, it does not mean that you pass out or become unconscious. In fact, by definition, people who have had alcohol related blackouts have retained consciousness, said Reagan Wetherill, a University of Pennsylvania psychologist who does addiction research. “A person in a blackout is conscious and interacting with their environment,” she said. 
What happens? Alcohol has broad effects on the brain regions involved in creating new memories, Wetherill said. It affects not only the hippocampus, the brain’s memory center, but all the other parts of the brain that help transfer information. “The brain itself is not creating memories,” Wetherill said. Drinkers may be able to participate in events, even emotionally charged ones, that they are unable to remember later. They may have partial amnesia – remembering some details but not others – or complete loss of memory for larger blocks of time. 
Even in the absence of blackouts, alcohol impairs the formation of long-term memories. The more you drink, the more your memory is affected. 
Who’s at risk? Some people may be more genetically vulnerable to blackouts than others. The risk seems to be higher for people with a family history of problem drinking, Wetherill said. 
Blackouts are more common in people who drink quickly or on an empty stomach. In one small study of 50 students who said they had blacked out, most said they had been drinking liquor alone or combined with beer. Just one reported drinking nothing but beer. Because of their body composition, women are more susceptible than men, Wetherill said. 
If you blacked out while drinking, how would you know?  You might not, Wetherill said. If you can’t remember the whole night or a big chunk of it, you’d probably figure that out. If you forgot a smaller chunk of time or details of an incident, you might not know what happened unless someone told you. Some people find they have “hazy” memories when friends describe what happened. 
If someone is drunk enough to vomit, are they more likely to experience blackouts? Vomiting is generally associated with higher blood alcohol concentrations (BAC), from 0.09 to 0.25, Wetherill said. (In Pennsylvania, your driving is considered impaired at 0.08.) Studies have found blackouts in people with BACs as low as 0.06, but most, she said, found them more common at 0.14 and above. 
Is a young drinker who has blacked out more likely to become a problem drinker? Blackouts were once considered a sign of alcoholism. This is no longer true. Studies have shown that blackouts are common in college students. One found that about half of college students who had ever consumed alcohol said they had blacked out at some point. 
Wetherill said drinking tends to rise sharply when young people get to college and reach drinking age. Current studies have found that many people age out of heavy drinking as they take on more adult responsibilities like parenthood and jobs. Some young heavy drinkers, of course, do develop alcohol-use disorder. That needs more study, but Wetherill said it is because of a constellation of factors that go well beyond high school and college binge drinking. ditt