Could a psychological test and assessment be invalid and still have reliability? Why or why not?

Could a psychological test and assessment be invalid and still have reliability? Why or why not?

REFERENCES IN CASE YOU WANT TO USE THEM ONE IS MY TEXT BOOK;
  
Cohen, R. J. & Swerdlik, M. E.(2018). Psychological testing and assessment (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN: 9781259870507.
ACA code of Ethics reference: American Counseling Association (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author

What ways could a counselors behavior affect the validity of the data gathered from a test results?

When testing a client, what two ways could a counselor’s behavior affect the validity of the data gathered from the test results? In what ways could a counselor’s behavior affect the reliability of the data gathered from the test results? Explain.

text book:   
Cohen, R. J. & Swerdlik, M. E.(2018). Psychological testing and assessment (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN: 9781259870507.

Discuss codes of practice and ethical issues that must be considered when using psychological assessments.

Write a 1,000-1,250-word paper discussing codes of practice and ethical issues that must be considered when using psychological assessments. Address the following in your paper:

A description of at least three ethical issues including multicultural and diversity issues
Ways to avoid the ethical issues in psychological assessments
A discussion of how a clinician assesses behaviors that stem from cultures or subcultures
A discussion of how a client’s academic/education, career, personal, and social development impacts assessment choice

Include a discussion of how these ethical issues are addressed in “Section E: Evaluation, Assessment, and Interpretation” from the American Counseling Association Code of Ethics located at: http://www.counseling.org/Resources/aca-code-of-ethics.pdf.
Include at least three scholarly references in addition to the textbook in your paper.
  
Please use the following APA headings for this week’s assignment:
(your intro para/s with no heading is first)
NOTE: I am unable to get them to format correctly in this platform so not that level 1 headings are bolded, capitalized (first letters), and centered. Level 2 headings are the same but flush left. There are also Level 3,4, and 5 headings.
Assessment Ethics (level 1 heading)
Example 1 (level 2 heading)
Example 2 (level 2 heading)
Example 3 (level 2 heading)
Avoiding Ethical Dilemmas (level 1 heading)
Cultural Considerations (level 1 heading)
Choosing the Right Assessment (level 1 heading)
Conclusion (level 1 heading)
Review APA levels of headings at: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/apa_headings_and_seriation.html
Read all instructions carefully. Please use your textbook AND at least three other scholarly resources.
Your minimum word count is 1000. Do not include title page or refs in word count.
Be sure you are reading all course material as well as the resources in Topic 2’s study materials (under Path).
Let me know if you have any questions.

Heres two references for you to use: 

  
Cohen, R. J. & Swerdlik, M. E.(2018). Psychological testing and assessment (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN: 9781259870507.

ACA code of Ethics reference: American Counseling Association (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author

Make sure you pay attention to the word count, she is a stickler. Dont use reference page of title page in word count. Don’t forget to have a conclusion at the end.  (ugh these picky Professors.)

What serious ethical violation could occur if a counselor administered a psychological test incorrectly or without considering multicultural factors?

What serious ethical violation could occur if a counselor administered a psychological test incorrectly or without considering multicultural factors? Identify the ACA Code of Ethics statements that apply in this scenario.

TEXT BOOK (IF YOU WANT TO USE IT FOR A REFERENCE)   
Cohen, R. J. & Swerdlik, M. E.(2018). Psychological testing and assessment (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. ISBN: 9781259870507.

  
ACA code of Ethics reference: American Counseling Association (2014). ACA Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author

must be approx 250 words, thank you

Measures to actually reduce health risks?

PLEASE—-NO plagiarism- copy or paste—-Include References–Answer all questions*

 

What percentage of population was affected by the disease?

Have there been instances of any historical outbreaks of the disease? How was the disease handled and controlled in your community?

What were the objectives and goals of your public education plan to control this disease?

What initiatives were taken by the government departments to mitigate the impact of the disease?

What measures would you suggest in the plan to actually reduce health risks?

How would the plan allow the public to recognize pathogens are related to the cause of diseases and other health problems?

How would the plan suggest measures to prevent the outbreak of the chosen infectious disease?

Stress Management Techniques.

 
Stress Management Techniques

State which stress management techniques you are practicing that have been the most effective
How you have been incorporating the stress management technique into your life (if it is something like working out, describe how you are being more mindful of it being a stress management technique rather than just a hobby or activity)
The circumstances of practicing that stress management technique
How you felt as a result of incorporating those stress management techniques into your life
Two stress management techniques that you have not found helpful.

Important roles in the success of a child with Emotional or Behavioral disorder [EBD].

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. Main references come from Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018) and/or American Psychiatric Association. (2013). You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. I have also attached my discussion rubric so you can see how to make full points. Please respond to all 3 of my classmates separately with separate references for each response. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation like peer-reviewed, professional scholarly journals. If you draw from the internet, I encourage you to use websites from the major mental health professional associations (American Counseling Association, American Psychological Association, etc.) or federal agencies (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), etc.). I need this completed by 03/01/19 at 8pm.
Expectation:
Responses to peers. Note that this is measured by both the quantity and quality of your posts. Does your post contribute to continuing the discussion? Are your ideas supported with citations from the learning resources and other scholarly sources? Note that citations are expected for both your main post and your response posts. Note also, that, although it is often helpful and important to provide one or two sentence responses thanking somebody or supporting them or commiserating with them, those types of responses do not always further the discussion as much as they check in with the author. Such responses are appropriate and encouraged; however, they should be considered supplemental to more substantive responses, not sufficient by themselves.
Read a your colleagues’ postings. Respond to your colleagues’ postings.
Respond in one or more of the following ways:
· Ask a probing question.
· Share an insight gained from having read your colleague’s posting.
· Offer and support an opinion.
· Validate an idea with your own experience.
· Make a suggestion.
· Expand on your colleague’s posting.
1. Classmate (G. Sim)
Exceptionalities
           Mental health services are limited especially when working with a child or adolescent that has an emotional or behavioral disorder (EBD; Samuel, 2018).  Behaviors can be aggressive and emotional responses can be extremely intense (Samuel, 2018).  There are significant challenges that arise with a child or adolescent with EBD.  One area that is a challenge for a child with EBD is the school environment (Samuel, 2018).  Families, educators, and peers all play an important role in the success of a child with EBD.
Emotional or Behavioral Disorder
           Children and adolescents with EBD struggle to maintain positive relationships with their families, their teachers, and their peers (Samuel, 2018).  They struggle with being able to regulate their emotions and impulses.  Because of this inability to always effectively self-regulate their behaviors can be extremely disruptive to their environments (Samuel, 2018).  1 out of 10 children have been diagnosed with an emotional or behavioral disorder that affects their ability to successfully navigate a school setting (Kutash, Duchnowski, & Green, 2015 as cited by Samuel, 2018).  This author works in a high school with a significant EBD population and interacts with these students regularly.  It has been observed that a rigidity within their school setting is not always positive or helpful.  This author has witnessed students with EBD be labeled derogatory terms and as burdensome.  This type of thinking and atmosphere is detrimental to the success of students with EBD.  These students are secluded from their peers in the classroom and during lunch times.  Exclusion is never a positive or helpful intervention.  This labeling and exclusion can intensify maladaptive behaviors which in turn carries over to the home environment.  Families struggle with EBD because of the disruptive and maladaptive behaviors.  Emotional outbursts, lack of social skills, hypersexual activity, lack of boundaries and oppositional behaviors are characteristics of a student with EBD (Samuel, 2018).  These behaviors negatively affect the parent-child relationship and the sibling relationship, if applicable.  A student with EBD will suffer in their peer relationships and can be at a higher risk of being the victim of bullying (Samuel, 2018).
Interventions
           Samuel (2018) identified Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) as an effective intervention program within a school setting and showed an overall decrease in disciplinary referrals with the implementation of PBIS.  The program consisted of a five-person team including a school counselor and parent representatives and the program included specific goals and a token economy (Samuel, 2018).  This is a positive intervention that has proven to be effective within the school.  Families were notified of how the student was performing at school keep families updated and to continue the positive behaviors in the home environment (Samuel, 2018).  Families can implement a token economy at home to help modify and encourage positive behaviors.  This would also provide consistency and continuity for the child.  This is designed to teach emotion regulation and positive conflict resolution.   
Conclusion
           Children and adolescents with EBD exhibit disruptive behaviors that can negatively impact their home and school environments (Samuel, 2018).  Implementing positive behavior interventions in the school setting can significant help reduce disciplinary issues at school (Samuel, 2018).  Families can implement a token economy at home to help promote positive behaviors and reduce maladaptive behaviors.
References
Samuel, A. (2018). The Effects of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.  Retrieved from       
          http://repository.stcloudstate.edu/sped_etds/55
2. Classmate (D. Ras)
Description of Historical Development that I Believe Contributed Most to Addictive Disorders & Why
The historical development that contributed most to addictive disorders is the brain disease model of addiction. Neuroscience is “the study of brain mechanisms from genetic and molecular mechanisms to psychological processes and clinical conditions” (Nutt & McLellan, 2012, p. 1). Neuroscience research has provided us with evidence of the how gene regulation is altered in the brain and brain functioning appears different after chronic substance use (Gartner, Cater, & Partridge, 2012). This research that began back in the 1950’s also found there are system-level mechanisms common in both drug addiction and other compulsive behaviors such as gambling and over-eating (Gartner, Cater, & Partridge, 2012). For years people addicted to alcohol and other substances were demoralized, looked down upon as being weak, and stereotyped as “bad people.” This event in history has not only allowed more people suffering from the disease of addiction access to healthcare treatments but also reduces the stigma attached to being an addicted individual (Gartner, Cater, & Partridge, 2012). Other benefits from this research are more people seeking treatment and compliance with medical treatment regimens, less reliance on imprisonment, and more investment in continued research to find new ways of treating this disease (Gartner, Cater, & Partridge, 2012). Van Wormer (2018) noted one of the two most significant developments in Irish treatment history was the introduction and the enthusiastic adoption of the disease model of Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcoholism and addiction had long been considered a lifestyle issue, but the introduction of the disease model has opened doors to insurance covering various treatments for this mental health disorder which is being treated by mental health professionals. 
Description of How Current Trends in Addiction Counseling Reflect Changes 
The effects of drug addiction on social systems has helped to contribute to the stigma that addiction is just a “social problem”, that people just make bad choices based on their life circumstances (McLellan A., Lewis D., O’Brien C., & Kleber H., 2000). However, given the neurological, physical, social, emotional and behavioral effects of engrained addiction, treatment efforts need to be just as potent. The days of educating people on the effects of drugs in the hopes of prevention are not enough. The research on neuroscience has provided policy makers insight as to why short-term treatments have not produced sustained positive change (Nutt & McLellan, 2012). This current trend has prompted a need for more substantial treatment methods that produce longer term success rates. Therefore, medication is found to be effective for treating drug addiction. The profound physiological changes in the brain systems following addiction has provided an opportunity to create these medications that will improve other social and behavioral rehabilitation efforts (Nutt & McLellan, 2012). For example, the heroin addict that continually relapses after numerous attempts at long-term recovery could improve their chances by taking the new opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (Nutt & McLellan, 2012).  Naltrexone blocks the effects of self-administered heroin or other opioids and has also been found to be effective in the treatment of alcohol addiction (Nutt & McLellan, 2012).
There are many people that believe the ideas surrounding addiction being a disease can deter people from believing they can change. Public policy makers are arguing that the disease model of addiction medicalizes human behavior overemphasizing the biological factors contributing to the behaviors which overshadows any social and environmental factors that may be present in an individual’s life (Gartner, Cater, & Partridge, 2012). Some argue with this growing body of research into the disease model could prompt more expensive treatments. Regardless, it is obvious past treatment regimens have not been completely successful and there is a need for money allotted to the continued research. 
Ideas for Advancing the Field of Addiction Treatment
The recent introduction of Medication Assisted Treatments (MAT) to the scene of addiction treatment has been gaining everyone’s attention, including the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). They announced the availability of $350 million in new funding to expand access to substance use disorder and mental health services at community health centers across the nation, including the expansion of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) services (U.S. Dept of HHS, 2018). MAT is the use of FDA medications to normalize brain chemistry, block the euphoric effects and relieve physical cravings (Walsh, 2015). I am all for preventing overdose and helping people change their lives. My only concern with the introduction and normalizing of MAT is that some people may continue to believe they need to take something in order to function. I am a believer that medication is necessary is some cases and will advocate for clients in these situations. However, just taking a pill does not compare to getting to the exact nature of why the individual continuously uses substances despite negative consequences. I believe that MAT should be used minimally and for only a certain amount of time. The end goal needs to be abstinence. Having someone put on MAT with the intent of being weaned down over a short period of time while participating in other treatment modalities such as CBT and other strength-based approaches is how I believe the field of addiction treatment will be advanced. 
Reference
Gartner, C. E., Carter, A., & Partridge, B. (2012). What are the public policy implications of a neurobiological view of addiction? Addiction, 107(7), 1199–1200.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
McLellan A., Lewis D., O’Brien C., & Kleber H. (2000). Drug Dependence, a Chronic Medical Illness: Implications for Treatment, Insurance, and Outcomes Evaluation. JAMA. 2000;284(13):1689–1695. doi:10.1001/jama.284.13.1689
Nutt, D., & McLellan, A. T. (2012). Can neuroscience improve addiction treatment and policies? Public Health Reviews, 35(2), 1–12.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. 
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2018, June 15). HHS makes $350 million available to fight the opioid crisis in community health centers nationwide. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2018/06/15/hhs-makes-350-million-available-to-fight-opioid-crisis-community-health-centers.html
Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage
Walsh, L. (2015, June 15). Medication and Counseling Treatment. Retrieved February 26, 2019, from https://www.samhsa.gov/medication-assisted-treatment/treatment
3. Classmate (L. Sim)
           As an addiction counselor it is important to be aware of different influences. Understanding how historical developments have contributed to addictive disorders provides insight into impacts on individuals. Further, as changes occur in different areas, counseling techniques will change, too. With these changes also comes ideas with continuing to advance addiction treatment.
Historical Development
           When new ideas, events, and changes occur throughout history there are impacts with developments.  The prohibition of alcohol initiated a track to look for other ways to fill voids or provide pleasure that alcohol once had done. Alcohol was having devastating effects on individuals, in turn society, which encouraged prohibition. However, this development added to addictive disorders. Van Wormer and Davis (2018) described the U.S. population moving from one drug to another and with the prohibition of alcohol, individuals turned to cocaine. Many would agree that cocaine is a step above alcohol. Stopping the sale and use of alcohol did not address true concerns individuals had. There may not have been specific reasons that individuals began to abuse alcohol, but for some there might have been. With prohibition, reasons for alcohol abuse were ignored. Whether it be something as simple as boredom or more severe. Additionally, with the end of Prohibition, there was a focus on the individual, as being sick, not bad (Van Wormer & Davis, 2018). This is important as it began to bring attention to individuals and explore reasons behind addiction.
Current Trends Reflect Changes
           Currently, trends in addiction counseling reflect changes in different areas. As historical developments have impacted addictive disorders, counselors and others have been influenced to alter addiction counseling. As changes come about in counseling techniques and ideas, changes in research, public policy, and socio-economic areas have occurred. Most would agree that the goal of treatment is to help individuals get better, which includes looking at social problems, individual issues, and the connection between society, welfare, and health (Fraser & Ekendahl, 2018).
Research is starting to share biological connections with addiction, rather then a focus and stereotype of individuals with addiction issues. Nutt and McLellan (2012) shared that using clinical and neuroscience ideas about addiction have increased. Addiction counseling is utilizing these ideas in practice to help better understand addiction and its impact. This basic understanding has improved understanding of individual differences in responses to drugs and potential for addiction (Nutt & McLellan, 2012).
At a policy level, these ideas of neuroscience and addiction utilized by counselors may improve policies. The government provides strict and harsh punishments for those abusing drugs (Nutt & McLellan, 2012), which is not helpful. Arresting and imprisoning individuals with drugs issues also involves financial impacts on the areas and the individual. It is important to be aware of socio-economic influences on addiction treatment, as addiction is not biased. Gartner, Carter, and Partridge (2012) described that public health policies are impacted by socio-economic statues, as individuals in wealthier areas were not impacted by raised prices through policy. This needs to be acknowledged, certainly as addiction counseling does not solely treat those from low income areas. However, there is a concern of too much of a focus on neuroscience at a policy level, taking away from individual decisions and behaviors (Gartner et al., 2012). The public could have a skewed view of addiction, which is feared to ignore other factors (Gartner et al., 2012).
Ideas for Advancement
Thoughts and ideas people have regarding addictions are not consistent. Many do not understand addiction or have judgmental ideas regarding this. I think advocacy is a major area that could help with understanding of addiction treatment. We need to bring awareness to the severity of addiction, it’s impacts on different levels, and the underlying causes. People suffering from addiction are not all the same and labeling someone as simply an addict is not helpful. Fraser and Ekendahl (2018) shared that there needs to be a focus on the overall health of individuals including the idea of holism. As a society, we need to see individuals as individuals and not only for what they are experiencing.
References
Fraser, S., & Ekendahl, M. (2018). “Getting Better”: The Politics of Comparison in Addiction
Treatment and Research. Contemporary Drug Problems, 45(2), 87–106. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/0091450917748163
Gartner, C. E., Carter, A., & Partridge, B. (2012). What are the public policy implications of a
neurobiological view of addiction? Addiction, 107(7), 1199–1200
Nutt, D., & McLellan, A. T. (2012). Can neuroscience improve addiction treatment and
policies? Public Health Reviews, 35(2), 1–12. 
Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th
ed.). Boston, MA: Ceng

Required Resources
· Van Wormer, K., & Davis, D. R. (2018). Addiction treatment: A strengths perspective (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.
o Chapter 1, “The Nature of Addiction” (pp. 3–49)
o Chapter 2, “Historical Perspectives” (pp. 51-87)
· Courtwright, D. T. (2012). Addiction and the science of history. Addiction, 107(3), 486–492.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Gartner, C. E., Carter, A., & Partridge, B. (2012). What are the public policy 0implications of a neurobiological view of addiction? Addiction, 107(7), 1199–1200.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
· Nutt, D., & McLellan, A. T. (2012). Can neuroscience improve addiction treatment and policies? Public Health Reviews, 35(2), 1–12.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. 
· Document: Final Project (PDF)
· American Counseling Association (ACA). (2014a). ACA code of ethics [A.1, A.4, and A.6 only]. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/docs/ethics/2014-aca-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=4
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (n.d.). Approaches to Drug Abuse Counseling: A Psychotherapeutic and Skills-Training Approach to the Treatment of Drug Addiction [Sections 4 and 5 only]. Retrieved February 20, 2019, from https://archives.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/approachestodacounseling.pdf 

Discuss the ethical issues related to upcoding a disorder in order to obtain reimbursement for services.

Assignment should be approx. 1 page per question.

Entire assignment should be 4-6 pages, plus a title and reference page

6.  Telepsychology is an emerging area of practice. To be in compliance with Standard 3.04, what factors must a psychologist consider in order avoid harming the client.

7.  Dr. Jones has been working with a 14-year female for a few months. The adolescent has just revealed that she has been engaging in self-injurious behavior, cutting, for the past month. The client also revealed that her parents are unaware of her behavior. Discuss the ethical dilemma that Dr. Jones must address, and steps she might consider in deciding whether and how to disclose confidential information.

8.  A major hurricane has swept through Dr. Borden’s small rural town. There were many casualties and loss of life. Many of the residents have gathered in the community center. Dr. Borden has decided to go to the community center and offer his services to the individuals in the center. Discuss the ethical responsibilities Dr. Borden has under Standard 5.06.

9.  Discuss the underlying principles related to the psychologists’ duty to document and maintain documentation related to their professional services. Describe the guidelines that determine what should be documented.

10.  Health care insurers often deny insurance reimbursement for certain DSM classifications that are common among clients served by psychologists. Discuss the ethical issues related to upcoding a disorder in order to obtain reimbursement for services.